Chapter 6- Intergovernmental Organizations and the Quest for Global Governance Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) and Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) IGOs- Institutions created and joined by states? governments, which give them authority to make collective decisions to manage particular problems on the global agenda Purposely created by states to solve shared problems Generally regarded as more important than NGOs because produced by states Numbers have increased sharply since the 19th century NGOs- Transnational organizations of private citizens maintaining consultative status with the UN; they include professional associations, foundations, multinational corporations, or simply internationally active groups in different states joined together to work toward common interests Global Intergovernmental Organizations The variation among the organizations in each subcategory is great, particularly with single purpose, limited-membership IGOs Eg. NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization: primarily a military alliance The United Nations UN is best-known global organizations Nearly universal membership, including today 192 independent members states from every region 1945 During the Cold War, the US and USSR prevented countries aligned with their adversary from joining (because of realpolitik) and the controversy has continued about Taiwan ever since (read in article) The UN?s Purpose Maintaining international peace and security Developing friendly relations among states based on respect for the principle of equal rights and the self-determination of peoples Achieving international cooperation solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all Functioning as a center for harmonizing the actions of countries to attain these common ends League of Nations sought to prevent a reoccurrence of WWI by replacing the balance-of-power system with one based on the construction of a collective security regime made up of rules for keeping peace After WWII, U.S., British, and Russian allies began planning for the UN The UN?s Expanding Agenda History of UN reflects the fact that both rich countries and developing countries have successfully used the UN to promote their own foreign policy goals => >300 treaties and conventions Six fundamental values: International freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature, and a sense of shared responsibility In response to the demands that have been placed upon it, the UN has evolved over time into a vast administrative machinery, with offices and staff not only in the UN headquarters in NY but also in centers throughout the globe Organizational Structure General Assembly- Main deliberative body Security Council- Deals with threats to international peace and security Economic and Social Council- Coordinating social and economic programs, functional commissions, and specialized agencies Trusteeship Council- Administration of territories that have no achieved self-rule (suspended in 1994) International Court of Justice- Principal judicial organ of the UN Secretariat- Contains international civil servants who perform the administrative and secretarial functions of the UN As now configures, the UN is not well organized to control the threats facing humanity Today, a coalition of 132 Global South countries constituting ¾ of the UN and led by G-77 (previously nonaligned states) along with the 5th committee (UN budget), seeks to resist domination by the GN Budget Blues Consists of three distinct elements: core budget, peacekeeping budget, and budget for voluntary programs States contribute to the voluntary programs and some of the peacekeeping activities as they see fit. The core budget and other peacekeeping activities are subject to assessments Future Challenges The past ten yeas have been sobering, reducing confidence in the UN?s ability to fulfill its ambitious goals by building global norms and international law to regulate unacceptable state behavior The administrative, political, and financial restraints on the UN do not automatically doom it to failure, as critics predict Other Prominent Global IGOs Most IGOs include as members a large but incomplete list of today?s sovereign states In each example, note that these IGOs were created by the great powers for the purposes of their sponsors in response to the great powers? need for a stable international economic order, even at the voluntary sacrifice of sovereignty The World Trade Organization The WTO now seeks to transcend the existing matrix of free-trade agreements between pairs of countries within particular regions or free-trade blocs, and replace them with an integrated and comprehensive worldwide system of liberal or free trade Criticized because ?there is little evidence of democracy within the WTO operations? Many of its policies are orchestrated by its most powerful members during informal meetings that do not include full WTO membership The World Bank Originally established to support reconstruction efforts in Europe after WWII Then shifted its attention to developmental assistance Over the years, both the self-image and operations of the World Bank have changed?from a strictly financial IGO to now assisting states? development planning and training The International Monetary Fund Now on of the 16 specialized agencies within the UN system The IMF derives its operating funds from its 185 member states Attached strict conditions to its loans, which has led to considerable criticism Makes political demands regarding democratization and privatizations that exceed the institution?s original mandate Regional Intergovernmental Organizations Because they cannot acct autonomously and lack the legitimacy and capability for independent global governance, universal IGOs are often views more as instruments of their state members? foreign policies and arenas for debate than as independent nonstate actors The European Union EU- Regional organization created by the merger of the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Atomic Energy Community, and the European Economic Community that has since expanded geographically and in its authority Security Community- Group of states whose high level of institutionalized or customary collaboration results in the settlement of disputes by compromise rather than by military force Third way- Approach to governance advocated primarily by many European leaders who, while recognizing few alternatives to liberal capitalism, seek to soften the cruel social impact of free-market individualism by progressively allowing government intervention to preserve social justice and the rights of individuals to freedom from fear of the deprivations caused by disruptions in the global economy The EU, or what has become know as ?Euroland,? is not, strictly speaking, a freestanding supranational organization for the collective management of European domestic and foreign affairs Consists of a large number of other IGOs EU Expansion and Political Integration Initiatives initially centered on trade developments Further expansion is conceivable because the admission procedures for possible new membership are currently underway for Croatia and Turkey, and other countries in the western Balkans lobbying for future membership The Functionalist Philosophical Rationale for European Integration Political Integration- Processes and activities by which the populations of many or all states transfer their loyalties to a merged political and economic unit World Federalism- Reform movement proposing as a path to peace combining many or all previously independent countries into a single federal institution for global governance Global integrated federal union Functionalism- Theory advanced by David Mitrany and other explaining how people can come to value transnational institutions (IGOs, integrated or merges states) and the steps to giving those institutions authority to provide the public goods (Eg. security) previously but inadequately, supplied by their own state Sharing of sovereignty instead of its surrender Epistemic Communities- Scientific experts on a subject of inquiry such as global warming that are organized internationally as NGOs to communicate with one another and use their constructed understanding of ?knowledge? to lobby for global transformations As convincing as functionalist theory appeared, dissatisfied critics arose, arguing that functionalists were naïve to argue that technical (functional) undertakings and political affairs can be separated Neofunctionalism- Revised functional theory explaining that the IGOs created by states to manage common problems provide benefits that exert new pressures by political means for further political integration, the creation of additional IGOs, and the globalization of international relations in an expanding network of independence that reduces states? incentives to wage war Proposes to accelerate the processes leading to new supranational communities by purposely pushing for cooperation in politically controversial areas, rather than by avoiding them The distinction between the ?old? Europe (the West) and the ?new? Europe (the East) underscored the probability of some EU divisions on the horizon, because the new members supported the American war in Iraq and the Western members (excluding GB), opposed the military invasion EU Organization and Management European Commission- Executive organ administratively responsible for the European Union European Parliament represents the political parties and public opinion within Europe Now chosen in a direct election by the citizens of the EU?s member states EU Decision-Making Challenges In practice, two decision-making procedures are followed for the adoption of EU directives and regulations: consultation and cooperation Disagreements persists over the extent to which the EU should become a single, truly united superstate, a ?United States of Europe? Pooled Sovereignty- Legal authority granted to an IGO by its members to make collective decisions regarding specified aspects of public policy before now made exclusively by each sovereign government Other Regional IGOs North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)- military alliance created in 1949 primarily to defer the Soviet Union in Western Europe. Has expanded membership to 26 countries and broadened its mission to promote democratization and to police civil wars and terrorism outside its traditional territory within Europe IGOs are organized on a regional rather than global basis The governments creating them usually concentrate on one or two major goals (such as liberalizing trade or promoting peace within a region) instead of attempting to address at once the complete range of issues they face in common (such as environmental protection, democratization, and economic and security cooperation) Spillover- Propensity for successful integration across one area of collaboration between states to propel further integration in other areas Spillback- Reversal of previous steps toward integration, reducing the number of sectors in which integrating states are engaged in cooperative exchanges Spillaround- Stagnation or encapsulation of regional integration as the costs of integration in one cooperative venture reduce efforts to try integration in other spheres of transaction The substantial difficulty that most regions have experienced in achieving a level of institution building similar to that of the EU suggests the enormity of the obstacles to creating new political communities out of previously divided ones IGOs are not the only nonstate actors leading the potential transformation of world politics. Another set are NGOs (chapter 7) Kegley, Charles. World Politics: Trend and Transformation.
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