Emerging adulthood- 18-25 years old. Too old to be adolescents yet not quite independent enough to be a full fledged adult. College delays financial independence Physical maturity and motor performance peak in the 20?s. Senescence- gradual physical decline that occurs with age. Begins almost as soon as growth has ceased. With sports, speed peaks between 25-27 years old while precision improves through the late 30s Adult height is reached by 17 for females and 19 for males After 30 people behind to lose height as disks between the spinal vertebrae shrink and bones themselves shrink as well. Men lose .5 inches of height from 30-50 females lose slightly more Womens breasts and hips reach adult size by middle of college years Men can expect to develop more muscle in their upper body Physical strength peaks between 18-29 and declines a little by 40-45 after that there?s a 5% loss of strength per decade Basal metabolism-number of calories a resting body needs to survive, slows 3% every 10 years Wrinkles are caused by a loss of fat cells from the inner layer of skin. Deterioration of collaged and elastin (protein fibers that provide support and elasticity for skin) and decreases in the skins ability to hold moisture. Smoking and sun exposure significantly speed up the wrinkling process 95% of hair loss in men are cases of male pattern baldness. Hairline recedes at the temples and the top of the head Baldness can occur anytime after puberty 25% of males begin to bald by 30 Graying process speeds up noticeable between 40-50 years Most body systems reach peak performance between 25-30 years then decline at a rate of about 1% per year Large increase from 20-50 in the number of people who rely on glasses or contacts Myopia gets worse around 20-30s or appears then By 40 the lens begins to lose its ability to adjust and hardens Presbyopia-?old eyes? close objects appear blurry Permanent hearing loss can occur whenever you?re exposed to noise at 110 DB or higher for longer then a minute. Homeostasis-balance or in the groove Older bodies take longer to achieve homeostasis and have difficulty maintaining a high state of performance and recover more slowly afterward. Less air is taken into the lungs during strenuous exercise Amount of oxygen delivered to the blood declines and the body becomes less efficient at clearing by products of metabolic activity Bone remodeling- body continuously removes old bone and creates new bone. 20% of our living bone tissue a year gets replaced. Peak density is reached by 20-29 lack of building adequate bone density results in risk for osteoporosis Exercise 2. Healthy Diet 3. Maintain a Healthy Weight Sexual responsiveness- 1. Excitement phase-foreplay, heart rate and blood pressure increase. 2. Plateau phase-sexual tension heightens opening of vagina tightens. 3. Orgasm phase- both partners experience orgasm. 4. Resolution phase- return to prearousal state Men reach sexual peak around 18 and around age 30 their testosterone levels decline 1% a year while diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol increase, they arouse more slowly and experience fewer erections. Women peak early to mid 30?s Only 2.5% of men are impotent by 45-49 Late 30?s to 40?s perimenopause- 4-6 years before a womans last menstrual period. Pregnancy possibility is in decline, irregular periods, water retention, heavy/light periods Menopause- ovulation and menstrual periods have ceased Increased white matter (connects parts of the brain) and decreased gray matter (information processing) results in a faster more efficient brain Primary aging- bodily decline genetically programmed to occur Secondary aging- due to genetic factors and environmental factors. Disease, injury Dialectical reasoning- critical thinking in which a person considers conflicting viewpoints by evaluating evidence for and against both sides. Postformal thought- after formal operational reasoning. Realize that many questions lack a single answer, the search for knowledge is never ending and there may be some value in seemingly opposing positions. Dualism- use concrete operations. Right or wrong Relativism- formal operations. Think abstractly and abandoned the idea that there are absolute truths that apply to every situation. Can use concepts Crystallized intelligence- factual knowledge Fluid intelligence- think abstractly and solve new problems Information processing approach- speed of processing declines, working memory declines, increase in knowledge and life experiences Intimacy versus isolation- 19-40 years old adults forge meaningful relationships or suffer from a lack of connection Generativity versus self-absorption and stagnation- 40-65 years, focus on production by nurturing, teaching, mentoring or leading. Giving back Time of events model- adults experience crises not from reaching particular ages but from events that are unpredictable or off schedule from society?s expectations for the timing of events Religion- socially, organized patterns of beliefs and practices that address meaning of life and the supernatural Spirituality- more personal journey to understand one?s place in the universe. Health behaviors- many faith groups encourage their members to abstain from or exercise responsibility about alcohol, cigarettes and sexual actions Social ties- provide opportunity for social interaction and support. Reduces stress Coping mechanisms- gives hope, control and sense of purpose to cope with lifes challenges.
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