9/23/09 12:23 PM Over View of Chapter Perception Optical Illusions Recognition of patterns Movement and depth Subliminal messages Sensing vs. Perceiving Sensing: taking in information Example: hearing Perceiving: making sense of that information Example: listening and understanding It?s a MENTAL process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns. What is reality? Reality is what WE perceive PERCEPTION : a single unified awareness derived from our senses while a stimulus is present. Perception : awareness of the presence of sensory stimulus Absolute Threshold Minimum amount of energy an individual can detect Example: tap you on the back Discrimination : the ability to distinguish between one stimuli and another Just noticeable Difference Minimum Difference before discrimination is possible Example: listening to a speaker and conversations around you and picking out the speakers voice Optical Illusions Misinterpretation of a visual stimulus Your brain TRIES to perceive depth We have learned rules that help us experience the world as it is. Awareness can influence what we see (or don?t see..) It?s easy to miss something your not looking for ( Moon walking bear) People perceive what they expect to perceive Ex: white.black picture of a banana, and most participants recall it was yellow Selective attention: the ability to attend certain things Recognition Of Patterns How do we recognize things? Past experience Surrounding area (context) Temporal lobe Feature-Detector Approach People Recognize things by breaking them into small parts Lines Angles Bottom up Approach Feature-Detector get over-used and fatigued If you stop using them -> you see the opposite AFTER-IMAGE Feature-detectors play a role at the most BASIC level of pattern recognition How we perceive more complex images, such as letters or faces. Gestalt Psychology ? Perceiving the Whole - Investigates our ability to perceive overall patterns 1. Figure-Ground 2. Proximity 3. Similarity ? group things based on similarity 4. Continuation ? if an object is obstructed, the object still is there. 5. Common Fate ? Objects are all moving in the same directions or changing in similar ways 6. Good Figure ? simple symmetric figure help us define figures 7. Closure ? whenever there are gaps in a pattern, our mind can fill in the gaps Perceiving the Whole 1. Visual stimulus 2. Info from Feature detectors 2. Past experience & expectations 3. Perception of the whole Brightness Contrast Increase or decrease in an object?s apparent brightness because of objects around it Movement and Depth Perception of movement What is this called? How is it caused? Visual Constancy: perceiving objects as keeping their shape, size and color even though the actual stimulus changes. Am I Moving or is it something around me moving? Info from vestibular system ? helps with balance, and tells you where you are in space. Movement relative to the background Depth Perception ? 3D sidewalk chalk and Ames Room Binocular Cues: cues that allow you to judge distance using BOTH eyes Convergence : the degree to which you turn your eyes to focus them. Your eye muscles tell your brain how much they moved. Monocular cues: cues that allow you to judge distance with just ONE eye. Object size Linear Perspective ? parallel lines converge at a distance Details Shadows ? use shadows to determine how big an object is Accommodation ? lens changes shape depending on how far the object is. Distant vision ? nearly parallel Close Vision Subliminal Perception When we take in information below our absolute sensory threshold. Can we really be influenced by subliminal messages? Research shows that subliminal perception has NO long-term influence on human behavior. We CAN detect it Priming : subliminal messages can make us more likely to respond a certain way IMMEDIATELY after Effects are BRIEF and SUBTLE Chapter 6 Interpretation of Sensory Information 9/23/09 12:23 PM 9/23/09 12:23 PM
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