Chapter 7: Gender, Power and Intimate Relationships -Blumberg?s general theory of gender stratification -relative control of one?s destiny = life options -dependent variable: male/female control on ?life options? -as in life changing matters: marriage, divorce, sexuality, fertility, freedom of movement, education, household power -fertility: women have bigger stake in control of fertiliy b/c can affect their life chances -women who breast feed/less baby food/no contraceptives have all their babies 24-27 months apart (3rd world countries) -females more likely to be in seclusion/need chaperons -who has more opportunities to learn?? -economic power is most important factor -macro-level: state level societies; women at disadvantage -micro-level: not always men at advantage -less committed partner in relationship has more power -independent variables:family, fertility, power -issues of gender stratification in every family (heterosexual esp.) -husband primary bread winner? -the rising female part in labor force (thus income) is the main factor driving changing patterns in family, fertility and relative female power -proportion of nuclear families in US went from 45% in 60s to 23% in 2000?still decreasing -1973 most prosperous year for US families? income?before oil shock -1957: highest fertility ever in US, 3.5 kids per mother -1950: avg. age of marrage 19.5?higher fertility -recent trends: later marriage, later/lower fertility, non-marital fertility, teen pregnancy, divorce rate higher -highest divorce rate in 1974 -more education = generally later marriage/cohabitation -Intimate reltaionships -heterosexual marriage -heterosexual partners: singles cohabiting -most couples prefer sharing marriage where both work and both help with childcare/housework -men have tripled amount of childcare and doubled housework -?second shift? for women decreasing (work in economy and home) -happiest marriages tend to be most egalitarian -same-sex partners: singles cohabiting -homosexual marriages allowed in 2 states -gay couple where both men are concerned with having a prosperous job, the one earning the most money has more power -lesbian couples try to divide housework more evenly/ignore income -single parent families increasing -single mother of color more likely to be in poverty -still gender gap in earnings -poverty has become feminized and problem for children -sex and fertility issues -more on power, sex and fertility -gap in virginity decreasing/vanished -double standard still exists?girls seen as ?sluts? -lowest fertility rates in patriarchal/rich countries (Spain) -also in countries where ?killing? off female babies -sexualities in the US -much more aware of bisexuals/transgender/lesbians/gays -intersex arrangements around the world -reproductive freedom, abortion and assisted reproductive technologies -1971: contraceptives legalized -1973: Roe v. Wade legalized abortion -violence -causes, trends and links to theory -single strongest predictor of violence against women was economic independence -where men feel threatened by the woman?s economic power also impacts violence -couple violence (symmetrical violence) -low level 50-50 for men-women -80% of emergency room admissions are women after case of domestic violence -intensifies over time -little known about same-sex violence -child abuse -rather recently recognized -in all social classes -more economic strain = more childe abuse -2/3 of kids with abuse in their childhood carry it onto their later life -elder abuse -usually the care taker
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