Located in the left temporal cortex; involved in language comprehension (whether spoken or signed)
-"I feel very well. In other words, I used to be able to work cigarettes. I don't know how. Things I couldn't hear from are here."
A mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects, events, or other stimuli
A neurological syndrome that is characterized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside the category undisturbed
-Nonliving things vs. plants vs. animals, etc.
Family Resemblance Theory
Members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member
The "best" or "most typical member" of a category
A theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category
-Not just what the prototype looks like but also specific ones
Rational Choice Theory
The classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two
When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event
-Linda is a bank teller vs. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.
-Better chances of one condition being met than two conditions being met
When people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased (or framed)
-Chances of being cured vs. chances of getting sicker
A framing effect in which people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation
Proposes that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains
-More willing to take risks to avoid losses than to achieve gains
A hypothetical mental ability that enables people to direct their thinking, adapt to their circumstances, and learn from their experiences
A statistic obtained by dividing a person's mental age by the person's physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100
A statistic obtained by dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100
A statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors
-If intelligence is a single, general ability, then there should be a very strong, positive correlation between people's performances on all kinds of tests
Two-Factor Theory Of Intelligence
Spearman's theory suggesting that every task requires a combination of a general ability (which he called g) and skills that are specific to the task (which he called s)
-Children who scored high on one measure tended to score high on other measures; however, a child who had the very highest score on one measure didn't necessarily have the highest score on every measure
The ability to process information
-"Some spiders don't spin webs", "all spiders eat insects" -> "That means some spiders must stalk their prey rather than trapping them"
The accuracy and amount of information available for processing
-"Some spiders don't spin webs", "all spiders eat insects"
A personal of normal intelligence who has an extraordinary ability
A person of low intelligence who has an extraordinary ability
Intelligence tests predict _________ better than they predict anything else.
A statistic (commonly denoted as h^2) that describes the proportion of the difference between people's scores that can be explained by differences in their genetic makeup
-Heritability of intelligence is roughly .5, meaning about 50% of the difference between people's intelligence test scores is due to genetic differences
The genetic influence on intelligence is illustrated by the finding that...
Identical twins reared apart are more similar than fraternal twins reared together.
Relative intelligence is likely to be _______ over time, whereas absolute intelligence is likely to _________.
Drawing conclusions or inferences from observations, facts, and assumptions
Single correct answer
Set of procedures guaranteed to produce a solution even if you don't know how it works
-Recipe, long division, etc.
Often no clearly correct solution
A rule of thumb that guides problem solving but does not guarantee optimal solution
-Doctor deciding on best treatment course
A process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared to determine the best possible solution or to resolve differences
-List pros and cons of argument
What are some barriers to rational thinking?
-Exaggerating the improbable
-The need for cognitive consistency
The tendency to judge the probability of a type of event by how easily it is to think of examples or instances
-Catastrophes easily come to mind because they stand out in memory (i.e. shark pandemic)
People irrationally ignore dangers that are hard to visualize (i.e. fear of kidnapped kids)
The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known
-"I knew it all along"
-Less likely to learn how to make accurate decision in future
The tendency to pay attention only to information that confirms one's beliefs
-Politicians bragging about their high success record and the failing records of opponents
The state of tension that occurs when a person holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person's belief is incongruent with his behavior
-Inconsistency and tension highly uncomfortable -> motivation to resolve it (justifying, blaming, denying, etc.)
More likely to reduce dissonance when...(option one)
You need to justify a choice or decision you freely made
-Buyer's remorse, best car I ever bought, best boyfriend, etc.
More likely to reduce dissonance when...(option two)
You need to justify a behavior that conflicts with our view of ourselves
More likely to reduce dissonance when...(option three)
You need to justify the effort you put into a decision or choice
-Justification of effort - the harder you work to reach a goal, the harder you suffer for it, the more you tell yourself the value of the goal
(1857 - 1911) Developed first objective test aiming to give unbiased assessment of child's ability/intelligence
-Determined "mental age"
Stanford University; modified Binet's test for American children
-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (1916)
Developed test for adults in the 1930s, then kids
-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
Hypothetical Property (G)
What enables people to perform a wide variety of consequential behaviors