The flow of information from gene to phenotype is:
DNA --> mRNA --> protein --> metabolic pathways
In Griffith's experiment (infecting mice with Streptocoocus pneumoniae) he used two strains of bacteria, a "smooth" virulent strain with a polysaccharide coat and a non-virulent "rough" strain without a polysaccharide coat. After which of the treatments below did the mice survive?
Mice revieving dead smooth bacteria
In the 1940s, most scientists believed that the genetic material had to be protien. If this prevailing opinion had been right, what would Avery et al. have found in their experiments?
Protease, but not DNAse or RNAse would have destroyed transformation of rough bacteria
Hershey and Chase carried out an experiment to determine if DNA was also genetic material of bacterial viruses. Which of the following is not part of their experiments?
32P was found associated with phage coats
Tobacco mosaic virus consists of a protein coat surrounding RNA. A TMV strainA virus was stripped of its coat and a protein coat from strainB was reconstructed over the strainA RNA core. If this new hybrid virus is used to infect a tobacco leaf, which coat will be produced in the progeny viruses?
Coat protein A
In the experiment involving hybrid tobacco mosaic viruses described above, what did this experiment demonstrate?
RNA is the genetic material for this virus.
What is the name for a small RNA (approximately 70bp) that carries an amino acid to the ribosomes?
Chloroplasts and mitochondria have circular chromosomes? They also have ribosomes. Are the ribosomes eukaryotic or prokaryotic in structure?
If the anti codon is 3' UAC 5', what is the codon?
What direction is the arrow number one in the image to the right?
5' to 3'
What enzyme is responsible for relaxing supercoiled DNA during replication?
Replication of DNA cannot be a continuous process because:
replication proceeds only in the 5'-3' direction of the new strand
DNA replication in prokaryotes begins with -
Binding of DNA A proteins adjacent to the origin of replication
Telomerase functions to:
add DNA to the ends of the chromosomes
DNA labeled with 15N and centrifuged in a cesium chloride gradient will form a band ---
Below DNA containing 14N
A DNA strand is labeled with a heavy nitrogen (15N). If the conservative model of replication had been correct, what would you see after two rounds of DNA replication in medium containing 14N?
one heavy, one light band
Are there any known exceptions to the rule that DNA replication is semiconservative?
What makes a primer for DNA polymerase during DNA replication?
Which DNA polymerase removes RNA primers following DNA synthesis?
After removal of the RNA primers, Okazaki fragments are joined through a reaction that involves which enzyme?
PRACTICE QUIZ QUESTIONS
What hypothesis was Griffith testing when he discovered "transformation"?
The smooth IIIS form of Streptococcus causes pneumonia
Why did Avery et al. treat bacterial extracts with proteinase?
If protein was the genetic material, proteinase would eliminate transforming activity
In the Hershey-Chase experiment, 32P was chosen as a label because -
It labels DNA
A nucelotide consists of
A sugar, a base, and a phosphate
Which of the following is a purine?
A purine with an amine (NH2) group on the 6th carbon is
A five carbon sugar lacking an oxygen at the Number 2 Carbon is found in -
In DNA, guanine pairs with --
In RNA, uracil pairs with --
Which of the following will require a higher temperature to denature?
DNA with a high G-C content
What is a function of messenger RNA?
It is a direct copy of a gene
The genetic material of retroviruses such as HIV is
Retroviruses replicate via a ___________ intermediate
Prokaryotic chromosomes are typically -
Proteins complexed with DNA include --
all of the above are correct
A. non histone proteins
B. histone proteins
C. regulatory proteins
Which of the following is not a key property of hereditary material?
it must be able to adapt itself to each of the body's tissues
If thymine makes up 15% of the bases in a specific DNA molecule, what is the percentage of the base adenine?
If thymine makes up 15% of the bases in a specific DNA molecule, what is the percentage of the base guanine?
PRACTICE QUIZ QUESTIONS
Messelsen and Stahl designed an experiment to test different theories of DNA replication. One of the theories stated that the original DNA strand was retained intact and used as a template for a new strand. This model of replication was called ---
After one replication in 15N, how many bands should be observed in a Cesium Chloride gradient?
After two rounds of replication, what bands will be onserved in a cesium chloride gradient?
One medium and one heavy band
Taylor, Woods and Hughes labeled Visua DNA by allowing new DNA synthesis in the presence of radioactive thymine. After DNA replication (S phase of the cell cylce), they should have observed ---
Both chromatids of a chromosome were labeled
DNA replication begins at an origin of replication. In bacteria, there is a single origin of replication. How many origins of replication are found in the much larger genomes of eukaryotes such as mammals?
Thousands and tens of thousands.
The enzyme DNA polymerase synthesizes new DNA in the --
The DNA polymerase in bacteria which is responsible for DNA synthesis is -
DNA repair is an important function of cells. Which polymerase is primarily active in repair?
Protiens which help open the double helix for DNA synthesis are --
Proteins which release supercoiling that results from opening in a replication bubble are --
The enzyme which sealse the DNA backbone on the discontinuous strand is -
An RNA primer is synthesized by -
DNA polymerase requires a primer to synthesize DNA
Without telomerase, what would happen to the ends of chromosomes after each round of replication?
Chromosomes would become progressively shorter
Acronym for HSADRO
Helices unwind DNA
Single stranded binding proteins hold DNA open
An RNA primer is synthesized
DNA polymerase synthesizes DNA in the 5'-3' direction on both strands
RNA primers are removed and the gap is filled
Okazaki fragments are joined by ligase
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