The tendency to change our perceptions, opinions, or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms
Influence that produces conformity when a person believes others are correct in their judgments
Influence that produces conformity when a person fears the negative social consequences of appearing deviant.
The change of beliefs that occurs when a person privately accepts the position taken by others
A superficial change in overt behavior without a corresponding change of opinion that is produced by real or imagined group pressure.
The process by which dissenters produce change within a group
Interpersonal "credits" that a person earns by following group norms
A cultural orientation in which independence, autonomy and self-reliance take priority over group allegiances
A cultural orientation in which interdependence, cooperation and social harmony take priority over personal goals
Changes in behavior that are elicited by direct requests
Make a small request followed by a large request or a series of small requests. "Snowballing" effect of saying yes.
A two-step compliance technique in which the influencer secures agreement with a request but then increases the size of that request by revealing hidden costs
1. Make a large request-----> rejection
2. Then make a smaller request as a compromise
3. Reciprocal concessions: process of bargaining and compromise
A two-step compliance technique in which the influencer begins with an inflated request, then decreases its apparent size by offering a discount or bonus
Behavior change produced by the commands of authority
Social impact theory
The theory that social influence depends on the strength, immediacy and number of source persons relative to target persons
When are people most likely to conform?
When the situation or stimulus is ambiguous (difficult to understand)
What is the impact of group size on conformity?
1. A group of 3-5 people will be more influential than a large group
2. The larger the group, the less conformity
3. Collusion: The large group is working together (ganging up) to be influential rather than stressing personal beliefs
The Psychology of Destructive Obedience
Stanley Milgram 1963. 40 men ages 20-50 who were asked to act like a "teacher" in a study on the role of punishment for forgetting."learner" was a confederate and strapped into a chair & hooked up to electrodes electrecuted for wrong answer
Prestige of sponsoring institutions
Yale: 65% delivered maximum shock
Bridgeport, CN office: 48% gave maximum shock
Delegation of authority
When you give a teacher an assistant 93% of people gave a shock (via assistant)
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