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The degree of belief that an estimated range of values – more specifically, a high or low value-includes or covers the population parameter.
A nonprobability sample in which the selection of elements is determined by the researcher’s convenience.
A stratified sample in which elements sharing a characteristic are underrepresented or overrepresented in the sample.
A particular case or entity about which information is collected; the unit of analysis.
A statistic based on sample observations that is used to estimate the numerical value of an unknown population parameter.
The mean or average value of a sample statistic based on repeated samples from a population.
A probability sample that draws elements from a stratified population at a rate proportional to the size of the samples.
A nonprobability sample in which a researcher uses discretion in selecting elements for observation.
A procedure used to improve the representativeness of telephone samples by giving both listed and unlisted numbers a chance of selection.
A subset of observations or cases drawn from a specified population.
The bias that occurs whenever some elements of a population are systematically excluded from a sample. It is usually due to an incomplete sampling frame or a nonprobability method of selecting elements.
The estimator of a population characteristic or attribute that is calculated from sample data.
A theoretical (nonobserved) distribution of sample statistics calculated on samples of size N that, if known, permits the calculation of confidence intervals and the test of statistical hypotheses.
The difference between a sample estimate and a corresponding population parameter that arises because only a portion of a population is observed.
The number of elements in a sampling frame divided by the desired sample size.
The standard deviation or measure of variability or dispersion of a sampling distribution.
A probability sample in which elements are selected from a list at predetermined intervals.
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