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- StudyBlue
- Arizona
- Arizona State University - Tempe
- Political Science
- Political Science 301
- Woodall
- Chapter 7 Terms

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Cluster Sample

A probability sample that is used when no list of elements exists. The sampling frame initially consists of clusters of elements.

Confidence

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Convenience Sample

Disproportionate Sample

Element

A particular case or entity about which information is collected; the unit of analysis.

Estimator

Expected Value

The mean or average value of a sample statistic based on repeated samples from a population.

Nonprobability Sample

A sample for which each element in the total population has an unknown probability of being selected.

Population

All the cases or observations covered by a hypothesis; all the units of analysis to which a hypothesis applies.

Population Parameter

The incidence of a characteristic or an attribute in a population (not a sample).

Probability Sample

A sample for which each element in the total population has a known probability of being selected.

Proportionate Sample

Purposive Sample

A nonprobability sample in which a researcher uses discretion in selecting elements for observation.

Quota Sample

A nonprobability sample in which elements are sampled in proportion to their representation in the population.

Random Digit Dialing

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Random Start

Selection of a number at random to determine where to start selecting elements in a systematic sample.

Sample

A subset of observations or cases drawn from a specified population.

Sample Bias

Sample Statistic

The estimator of a population characteristic or attribute that is calculated from sample data.

Sampling Distribution

*N* that, if known, permits the calculation of confidence intervals and the test of statistical hypotheses.

Sampling Error

Sampling Fraction

The population from which a sample is drawn. Ideally it is the same as the total population of interest to a study.

Sampling Frame

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Sampling Interval

The number of elements in a sampling frame divided by the desired sample size.

Sampling Unit

The entity listed in a sampling frame. It may be the same as an element, or it may be a group or cluster of elements.

Simple Random Sample

A probability sample in which each element has an equal chance of being selected.

Snowball Sample

A sample in which respondents are asked to identify additional members of a population.

Standard Error

The standard deviation or measure of variability or dispersion of a sampling distribution.

Statistical Inference

The mathematical theory and techniques for making conjectures about the unknown characteristics (parameter) of populations based on samples.

Stratified Sample

A probability sample in which elements sharing one or more characteristics are grouped, and elements are selected from each group in proportion to the group’s representation in the total population.

Stratum

A subgroup of a population that shares one or more characteristics.

Systematic Sample

A probability sample in which elements are selected from a list at predetermined intervals.

Weighting Factor

A mathematical factor used to make a disproportionate sample representative.

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