By the time a child is 6-years-old, he/she weighs, on average, about ________ pounds and stands approximately ________ inches tall.= 46; 46 What kind(s) of food are particularly important for preschool children?= foods high in iron content (ex. dark green vegetables, grains, and some kinds of meat The average preschool child has ________ colds and other respiratory illnesses in each of the years from age 3 to 5.= 7 to 10 Before they are 10-years-old, children are ________ as likely to die from a(n) ________ than from a(n)=twice; injury; illness Which of the following most likely contributes to the high level of accidents in the preschool age group?= preschooler's high level of physical activity; curiosity; lack of judgment According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately how many children are at risk for lead poisoning due to exposure to potentially toxic levels of lead?= 14 million By age five, a child's brain weighs ________ of an average adult's brain.= 90% By the end of the preschool period, the ________ part of the brain has grown significantly because it becomes considerably thicker with individual fibers that help coordinate brain functioning between the two hemispheres.= corpus callosum What is the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other? = lateralization The left hemisphere of the brain becomes more specialized during the preschool years in all of the following areas except= spatial relationships The right hemisphere of the brain becomes more specialized during the preschool years in all of the following areas except= thinking and reasoning If a child demonstrates a tendency toward being left-handed, then which of the following is least likely to apply= they are more intelligent than average children Considering the hemispheric differences in lateralization related to gender and culture, boys show a greater lateralization of language in the ________ hemisphere; while girls develop language in= left; both hemispheres Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen describes the differences between male and female brain that may solve the puzzle of autism is called= extreme male brain Research indicates that there are minor structural differences in the male and female brain. For example, a section of the ________ is proportionally larger in women than in men= corpus callosum What area of the brain associated with attention and concentration is completely myelinated by the time a child is 5-years-old?= reticular formation During the preschool years, which part of the brain demonstrates a growth in nerve connections, and is responsible for sophisticated information processing?= cerebral cortex Research suggests that the age toilet training takes place has risen over the years. In 1999, what percentage of children were toilet trained by 18 months of age?= 25% All of the following are considered a sign that the toddler is ready to begin toilet training except= being able to thoroughly wipe/cleanse themselves after urination or elimination All of the following are gross motor skills that a 5-year-old preschooler possesses except= holding/manipulating a pencil Chapter 7 test 2 According to Piaget, which stage occurs from approximately 2 to age 7 in which children's use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases?= preoperational Which of the following is the best description of Piaget's "symbolic function"?= a child is able to use a mental symbol, a word, or object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present Madeline is working to teach her 4-year-old daughter, Eliza, how to count. She places 10 buttons in one row with very little space between the buttons, and 8 buttons in another row with more space between the buttons; therefore, the second row is longer than the first. Then Madeline asks her daughter which row has more buttons. Inevitably, Eliza chooses the second row, even though she knows that 10 is more than 8. What is this an example of?= centration Preschooler's thought focuses on all of the following except = the ability to consider all available information What was Piaget's explanation as to why preschool-age children in the preoperational stage make errors on tasks requiring conservation? = preschool children's tendency toward centration prevents them from focusing on other relevant features of a situation If a 4 ½-year-old child is asked to draw a person, who is first standing upright and then has fallen down, the child is likely to draw the figure in the vertical position, and then the figure lying in the horizontal position with no other pictures in-between to demonstrate the person falling. This child would be demonstrating a lack of = transformation On Christmas morning, 3-year-old Billy opens one of his gifts from his mother and finds a new sweater. Disappointed that it is not a toy, Billy frowns and throws the sweater aside in front of his mother with no regard for her feelings. In this example, Billy is demonstrating = egocentric thought In 4-year-old Amanda's preschool class, the group discussion involved airplanes. After that, Amanda considered herself an expert on airplanes and believed she knew everything there was to know about airplanes, even though she was unable to provide a reasonable explanation about why she thought she knew so much about airplanes. In this example, Amanda is demonstrating= intuitive thought By the end of the preoperational stage, children are able to understand the idea that actions, events, and outcomes are related to one another in fixed patterns, and this is called= functionality Most people have unambiguous and seemingly accurate memories dating as far back as age = 3 Considering the following options, which is the most likely reason why preschool-age children may not have entirely accurate autobiographical memories?= preschool-age children have difficulty describing certain kinds of information; therefore, they oversimplify Which developmental psychologist believed that the nature of the partnership between children, adults, and peers is determined through cultural and societal factors such as preschools, play groups, the emphasis on certain tasks that are valued by the culture and society, and that even the toys that children play with reflect the nature of the society in which the child lives= Vygotsky According to Vygotsky, what is the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent?= zone of proximal development According to Vygotsky, if one child receives assistance he/she may improve substantially more than another child who does not receive help. The assistance or structuring provided by others is termed= scaffolding. Vygotsky believed that that actual physical items that a child uses to learn (pencils, books, computers, etc.) as well as the intellectual and conceptual framework that the child uses to learn (language, alphabet, number/math systems, religious systems, etc.) are called= cultural tools Test 3 From the later months of age 2 and the mid-3s, children combine words and phrases to form sentences which ________ each month.= doubles By age 6, the average child has a vocabulary of around ________ words.= 14.000 At approximately what age can a child follow the principles of grammar most of the time?= 3 By age 4, children in families receiving welfare assistance were likely to have been exposed to ________ words than children living with professionals and/or affluent families.= 13 million fewer Psychologists Hart and Risley found in their study that the type of language to which children are exposed is associated with= performance on intelligence tests Approximately how many hours per week does the average preschool child watch TV?=21 Research indicates that preschoolers spend approximately ________ reading on the average day.= 45 mins How much TV does the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that a 2-year-old be allowed to watch= none After the age of 2, how many hours per day of television does the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend for children?= 1 to 2 hours of quality programming Parents in China, Japan, and the United States all see the benefits of preschools in a different way. What do U.S. parents view as the most likely benefit of preschool?= developing a sense of independence
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