It is the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter.
What is the independent variable or variables suppose to influence?
The dependent variable
What type of cause is the independent variable?
It is the hypothesized cause
It is what from other causes in the experiment?
It is independent from other causes.
The dependent variable is what type of effect?
It is the predicted effect.
what is the dependent variable?
It is the variable measured by the experimenter and expects the dependent variable be influenced by the independent variable.
What does the dependent variable depend on?
It depends on the influence of the independent variable.
True experiments have what kind of assignment?
What is matching?
A method of assigning participants to experimental conditions. Researchers try to identify similar individuals in order to place them in different conditions. Done to gain some comparability between experimental conditions.
Without identical groups individual differences could explain what?
Could explain result differences.
It matching a good way to approach and experment?
No, It is very difficult to do You can't be sure you have matched on every relevant variable. Just not sure if all the participants match on all relevant variables.
What does True Experiments use for picking participants?
What is an advantage of using random assignment?
Participants have an equal chance to be in any condition It equates on every dimension (even ones that you do not know)
When is random sampling a problem?
It is a problem when it comes to small samples. It doesn't always measure the relevant variables and you need to replicate the study.
In random Assignment what does it eliminate?
It eliminates person confounds
Random assignment and random sampling both essentially do what?
They both maximize likelihood that two groups will be similar.
What are some solutions when Random Assignment doesn't work?
Conduct Statistical Tests
Can try and replicate or (repeat) the study.
Can try to measure the critical variables. (interactions)
Random Assignment is associated with what while Random Sampling is associated with what?
What does Random Assignment accomplish?
Each person has an equal chance of being assigned to any experimental condition.
What does Random Sampling accomplish?
Each person in the population has an equal chance of being in the sample.
Random Assignment helps eliminate what?
What is manipulation?
Manipulation occurs when an experimenter systematically alters the levels of a variable (independent Variable)
It is to see if there is changes in the independent variable that leads to corresponding changes in the outcome variable (dependent Variable)
Why is identifying boundary conditions in an experiment important?
It is important part of scientific process and a great deal of psychological research is al about process
Experiments can tell you exactly what a manipulation...
Can and can't do
Strengths eliminate what?
Eliminate other confounds
What type of experiments help eliminate confounds?
What is a confound?
It is a nuisance variable that varies systematically with the independent variable and it might be causally related to the dependent variable.
When do person confounds exist?
when individual differences covary with and experimental treatment conditions and are related to the dependent variable.
What are procedural confounds?
A confound that occurs in a laboratory experiment or quasi-experiment when a researcher mistakenly allows a second variable to vary along with a manipulated variable. (Related to environmental confounds)
What are procedural confounds a threat to?
Threatens internal validity
When do procedural confounds occur?
When an experimenter unwittingly manipulates two or more things at once.
What are operational confounds?
A confound that occurs when a measure designed to assess a specific construct such as self-esteem, time pressure, or happiness.
When does an operational confound occur?
when a manipulation influences more than one psychological construct, each of which may influence the dependent variable
Why do labs have many advantages over field experiments?
complete control over the environment in the lab
Easier to eliminate confounds
Can measure things that are invisible, using advanced technology or questionnaires
Eliminate natural confounds that occur in the field.
True experiments allow you to observe the invisible in what ways?
Physiological assessments of things like stress and attitudes
Functional MRI imaging allows us to see brain activity
Implicit association measures get at hidden prejudice
Can monitor different subtle aspects of behavior.
True experiments allow someone to study the interaction effects in what ways?
Allows you to study the effects of two variable together It allows you to control , isolate, and combine variables
What is the interaction effect?
Effect on one variable that differs depending on the levels of another Tells you when and under what conditions causation occurs Can identify Boundary Conditions
Why are interactions very important?
It is because they identify the limiting conditions of a specific theory.
What is qualification?
It requires the analysis of interactions.
What is the Semantic Priming Effect?
Refers to the findings that people recognize most words more quickly that usual when they have just been exposed to words that have similar meaning.
What is Noise in reference to an experiment?
It is an extraneous variable in an experiment that influences the dependent variable but that is evenly distributed across experimental conditions.
Noise is not a threat to validity but may decrease the researchers ability to detect what?
True or False? Noise creates so much variability in the dependent variable that it makes it hard to see the true effects of any independent variables.
Noise is not a con found therefore it is what?
It increases the range of the DV Makes it harder to find an effect
Noise threatens what?
Threaten your ability to find a significant difference between conditions.
When you use similar people it limits noise, but it also limits what else?
It also limits generalizability
what do experiments provide for researchers with overall?
with clear and compelling information about causality.
What are experiments especially high in?
What is the most common criticism of experiments ?
It is that they are artificial
what are artifacts?
They are variables that are held constant in studies and that may nonetheless influence a set of research findings.
Can lab research tell us anything about about broad principles of human nature?
This has to do with external validity of lab research
What is external validity?
Refers to the extent to which a set of research finding provides an accurate description of what typically happens in the real world.
What is the solution to Artificiality?
It is to increase experimental realism
What is the Placebo Effect?
It occurs when a persons symptoms or responses are changed in some way by a treatment, because of the person believing or expecting that it will work.
What are the two forms or Realism?
Mundane Realism Experimental Realism
what is Mundane Realism?
The degree to which the physical setting in an experiment is similar to the real world settings in which the experimenters independent and dependent variables are most likely to operate.
The degree to which your setting looks like the real world is what?
What is experimental realism?
It is the degree to which the subjective experiences of research participants are realistic or psychologically meaningful. It is a well designed exp high in experimental realism even when they have little resemblance to the real world.
What is experimental realism also referred to as?
When a study is high in Mundane realism when it......
When it looks like the real world
When a study is high in experimental realism it is.......
It feels just like the real world
non-experimental researchers need to think long and hard about what while experimental researchers need to think long and hard about what?
Internal Validity External Validity
What is Construct Validity?
It is the degree to which the independent and dependent variables in a study truly represent the abstract, hypothetical variables in which the researcher is interested
what is a manipulation check?
It is a measure designed to see if a manipulation truly puts people in the psychological state that the experimenter wishes to create
what can pilot tests help with?
They can help with by identifying almost anything that is wrong with your experiment.
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