Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Led by Carl Hovland (1949) -- Approach wasn't theory driven
research...data driven. -- Interested in identifying factors that led to attitude change. -- WHO said WHAT to WHOM -- By the 1970s, there was “reigning confusion in the area” and a “scanty yield despite a tremendously thriving
Elaboration Likelihood Model -- Petty and Cacioppo (1986). -- Elaboration likelihood continuum. -- How motivated and able people are to assess the central merits of a person, issue, or position. -- The more motivated the more likely they are to effortfully scrutinize all available relevant information.
Target is involved and focuses on the argument quality -- Persuaded by the strength of the argument.
Target is uninvolved and thus focuses on incidental cues... such as speakers attractiveness, rate of speech, etc. -- Use irrelevant information to make a decision -- Don't take the time and cognitive effort to scrutinize
what is actually being said.
Credibility -- Do they know what they are talking about? -- Do we think they are telling us the truth? -- Expertise vs. Non-Expert (4/5 doctors recommend…) --
Credibility: Trustworthiness – Hidden Camera Technique – Going against your best interests -- Credibility is a technique that is used all of the time in persuasion tactics and it seems to work. -- Effect is somewhat limited.... credibility of the source fades over time.... -Sleeper Effect
Attractiveness /Likableness -- Having characteristics that are appealing to the
audience are more apt to facilitate persuasion. -- Dependent on the culture at that specific moment -- Bill Cosby – Jello --Covergirl/Revlon -- Iron Maiden – Role of Women
Does the message appeals to emotions? -- If it appeals to your emotions, more than your head, you'll be persuaded more. -- People are not highly involved in advertising judgments. Don't go with Consumer Reports. Go with their feelings. If they LIKE a product then they will buy it.
When a persuasive message is associated with positive
feelings it is even more persuasive. -- Examples: – Wine and dine clients – Politics -- Janis et al (1965) exposed people to a variety of different
persuasive appeals. --Those munching on snacks like peanuts and Pepsi while
listening to a message were more easily persuaded.
Negative Emotions: Fear -- Janis and Feshbach (1953): Brush your teeth: - Simple Statement – Talked about gum disease in vivid terms – Showed pictures of horrible gum disease -- Too much fear is overwhelming. -- Moderate levels work the best.
In general advertisers use positive rather than negative emotions to persuade you. -- Don't want negative associations with their products. So they tend to sugarcoat everything.
Whether or not to present a two sided or one-sided argument. -- Hovland, Lumsdaine, and Sheffield (1949). -- If an audience was initially generally favorable to an issue, a one-sided argument was most persuasive. If the audience is initially somewhat opposed, you'll get more attitude change using a 2-sided argument.
Which medium is most persuasive? It depends on the complexity of the message.
Who are we trying to persuade? What is our target demographic? -- Age – Younger people, those between the ages of 18-25 are most impressionable
Involvement of the Target -- People who are involved in the target tend to think deeply about the issue and use the central route. -- People less involved respond best to peripheral cues.
A cult is a group typically characterized by – The distinctive ritual of its devotion to a god or a person – Isolation from the surrounding "evil" culture – A charismatic leader. -- A sect, by contrast, is a spinoff from a major religion. --Groups that do not meet all three criteria may be deemed “cult-like” in their practices etc.
Recruits are often young (under 25) --Some are less educated people who like the simplicity of the message and find it difficult to counter-argue. -- But most are educated, middle-class people who, taken by the ideals, overlook the contradictions -- nOften are at a turning point in their lives, facing a personal crisis, or vacationing or living away from home. -- They have needs; the cult offers them an answer. -- Times of social and economic upheaval are especially
James Jones was the founder of the Peoples Temple -- Led an integrated church in Indianapolis – later SF. -- He was particularly fascinated with his ability to manipulate people – became very skilled -- He claimed to be an incarnation of Jesus, Buddha, Lenin, and Father Divine. Called Father --Performed “miracle healings”.
In summer 1977, group moved to Guyana and created Jonestown. -- In November 1978, U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan led a fact-finding mission to Jonestown to investigate complaints by relatives -- Ryan and several members of his group were killed just before they flew back to the US
Jones order the mass suicide of his followers --909 of the remaining inhabitants of Jonestown, 276 of them children, died in a mass suicide. -- Some followers obeyed Jones' instructions to commit "revolutionary suicide" by drinking cyanide-laced grape flavored Flavor Aid. Others were shot. -- Jones was found dead with a gunshot to the head.
David Koresh (Vernon Howell) used his talent for memorizing Scripture and charisma to seize control of a faction of a sect called the Branch Davidians. -- Koresh believed himself to be a modernday Cyrus the Great, who had delivered the Jews from Babylon. -- Members were gradually relieved of their bank accounts and possessions. -- Persuaded men to live celibately while
he slept with their wives/daughters.
On 2/28/93, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) raided Mount Carmel. Raid resulted in the deaths of 4 agents and 6 Davidians. -- The 51-day siege of Mount Carmel ended when U.S Attorney General Janet Reno the use of force -- When federal agents rammed the compound with tanks, hoping to inject
tear gas, cult members set it afire, consuming Koresh, 51 adults and 21
Heaven's Gate was founded by Marshall Herff Applewhite (Bo) and Bonnie Lu Truesdale Nettles (Peep) -- They claimed to have arrived via UFO from another dimension (a "level above human") and would return via a secretive "Process", which was taught to group members. Truesdale Nettles died of cancer in
An amateur astronomer announced on a conspiracyminded radio show that he’d taken a picture of Hale-Bopp showing an elongated fuzzy brightness lurking in the tail – suggesting a UFO. -- They believed this was their longawaited “indicator,” -- The group updated its Web site. -- 39 members were found dead in a San Diego community on March 26, 1997.
The suicide was accomplished by ingestion of Phenobarbital mixed with vodka, along with plastic bags secured around their heads to induce asphyxiation. -- Faces and torsos covered by a square, purple cloth. -- Each member carried five dollar bills and a few quarters in their wallets.
All were dressed in identical black shirts and sweat pants, brand new black-and-white Nike tennis shoes, and armband patches reading "Heaven's Gate Away Team". -- Suicides were conducted in shifts. remaining members of the group cleaned up after each group.
A variety of techniques can be used to create a cult environment -- Most use the social influence and persuasion techniques that we have already discussed – Cialdini – ELM – Dissonance – Conformity and Obedience
Choose something people already believe in and put your own spin on it. --Eliminate all sources of information except that provided by the cult (Remote Area & No Mass Media) -- Social Implosion – External ties weaken until the group socially collapses inward, each person engaging only with other group
members. – Lose access to counter-arguments. – The cult frowns on or punishes disagreements -consensus helps eliminate any lingering doubts.
Create an ingroup of followers & outgroup that is evil --To do this the group can use – Initiation –Special clothing – Changed Diets – Special Names (Heaven’s Gate – ody) - Love-bombing -- A group to hate needs to be created
I'm through with religion. I'm gonna join a cult. -- Hi. I'm a Moonie. Care to join us? -- Use the foot-in-the-door technique -- Unification Church recruiters would invite people to a dinner and then to a weekend of warm fellowship and discussions of philosophies of life, songs, activities, etc
Potential converts were then urged to sign up for longer training retreats, eventually becoming more arduous -- Help for just five minutes at work by folding and mailing a few envelopes – Jim Jones. -- Peoples Temple had voluntary monetary offerings -- He next inaugurated a required 10-percent-of-income contribution, which soon increased to 25 percent.
Finally, he ordered members to turn over to him everything they owned. --Scientology uses a similar approach – Free courses and readings to $15,000 required week long events to achieve salvation
Former Peoples Temple member Grace Steen: -- “Nothing was ever done drastically. That's how Jim Jones got away with so much. You slowly gave up things and slowly had to put up with more, but it was always done very gradually. It was amazing, because you would sit up sometimes and say, wow, I really have given up a lot. I really am putting up with a lot. But he did it so slowly that you figured, I've made it this far, what the hell is the difference?”
Successful cults have a charismatic leader – someone who attracts and directs the members. -- A credible communicator is someone the audience perceives as expert and trustworthy -- Jones used "psychic readings" to establish his credibility. -- Trust is another aspect of credibility.
Margaret Singer noted that middle-class Caucasian youths are more vulnerable because they are trusting. They lack "street smarts" of lower-class youths -- Many cult members have been recruited by friends or relatives, people they trust.
Brings in new members – Jones’ Buss Tours -- Reaffirms Beliefs -- Reduce Cognitive Dissonance -- Avoid Hypocrisy
The promise of a better life -- A state of one (or Clear) with the Universe -- It is a phantom because it can never be wholly accomplished
Strengthening personal commitment – Before encountering others' judgments, make a public commitment to your position. – You will become less susceptible to what others have to say. -- How? – Challenging beliefs by mildly attacking their position. – When committed people were attacked strongly enough to cause them to react, but not so strongly as to overwhelm them, they became even more committed.
Attitude Inoculation: Developing counter-arguments -- McGuire (1964) gave subjects a small dose of belief-threatening material to inoculate them "It's a good idea to brush your teeth after every meal if at all possible.“ -- Then provided a massive, credible assault upon this truism -- They were better able to resist the powerful attack.
Case studies: Large-scale inoculation programs -- Inoculating children against peer pressure to smoke -- McAlister (1980) had high school students "inoculate"
seventh graders against peer pressures to smoke. -- Respond to advertisements --Acted in role plays -- Inoculated students were half as likely to begin smoking as uninoculated students at another junior high school that had an identical parental smoking rate.
(1) Monitor your emotions (2) Explore the motivation and credibility of the source (3) Think rationally about any proposal or issue (4) Try to understand the full range of options before making a decision (5) If the deal looks too good to be true it probably is (6) Teach your children about propaganda – support efforts
to protect them (7) Become more knowledgeable/involved about the issues (8) Support campaign spending reform
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!