1 Health Psychology, 7th ed. Shelly E. Taylor ? Stress Moderators: ? May have an impact on: ? Stress ? The relationship between stress & psychological responses ? The relation between stress & illness ? The degree to which a stressful experience intrudes into other aspects of life Haudenschield: Psych 531 2 Haudenschield: Psych 531 3 2 ? Coping: ? Relationships between coping and a stressful event is a dynamic process ? A set of responses, occurring over time, by which the environment & the person influence each other ? Breadth ? ? Coping efforts focused on: ? Reducing harmful environmental conditions & enhancing the prospects for recovery ? Tolerating / adjusting to negative events / realities ? Maintaining a positive self-image ? Maintaining emotional equilibrium ? Continuing satisfying relationships with others Haudenschield: Psych 531 4 ? Personality and coping: Influenced both by genetics & environment ? Negative Affectivity (i.e., Neuroticism): ? ?Disease-Prone Personality?: ? More likely to report symptoms & present for treatment, but less likely to follow recommendation / treatment plan Haudenschield: Psych 531 5 ? Coping resources ? Optimism ? Optimistic people differ from pessimists in physiological functioning ? More efficient use of coping mechanisms (i.e., problem- focused coping, seeking social support) Haudenschield: Psych 531 6 3 ? Psychological control: ? Related to emotional well-being, successful coping with stressful events, good health, positive health behavior change, & improved cognitive performance ? Used in interventions to promote good health habits ? May be used to cope with stressful medical procedures ? Especially important for children, older adults, medical patients (groups that may already feel they have little control) Haudenschield: Psych 531 7 ? Additional coping resources Haudenschield: Psych 531 8 ? Coping style: ? Both genetic and environmental influences ? Approach (confrontative, vigilant) vs. Avoidance (minimizing) Coping ? Each had advantages and liabilities ? Approach most successful ? Avoidance may work best Haudenschield: Psych 531 9 4 ? Problem-focused coping: ? Emerges during childhood ? Emotion-focused coping: ? Develops in late childhood / early adolescence ? Health problems may lead to more emotion-focused coping ? Rumination: ? Emotional-approach coping: ? Improves adjustment to chronic conditions (e.g., pain) Haudenschield: Psych 531 10 ? Specific coping strategies ? Personal coping strategies are important when dealing with stressful events Haudenschield: Psych 531 11 ? External resources include: ? Time ? Money ? Education ? Decent job ? Children ? Friends ? Family ? Standard of living / SES ? Presence of positive life events ? Absence of other life stressors Haudenschield: Psych 531 12 5 ? Resilience ? Sources of resilience Haudenschield: Psych 531 13 ? Measures of physiological and biochemical functioning ? Coping is considered more successful if it: ? Whether / how quickly people can return to their pre- stress activities ? Some stressors may permanently alter one?s life (for better or worse) Haudenschield: Psych 531 14 ? Social Support ? Can take several forms ? Costs of social support: ? Guilt (feeling that one is monopolizing another?s time / attention) ? Threat to self-esteem (feelings of dependence on others) Haudenschield: Psych 531 15 6 ? Effect of social support on psychological distress ? May be a larger issue for: ? Older adults / recently widowed ? Victims of sudden, severe, uncontrollable life events ? Shy / those who have difficulty with social relationships / anticipation rejection by others ? Loneliness: leads to health risks; trouble sleeping & increased cardiovascular activation Haudenschield: Psych 531 16 ? Effects of social support on physiological & neuroendocrine responses to stress ? Biological responses to stress more subdued when a supportive companion is present ? Social contact can cause the release of oxytocin ? Simply believe that support is available / thinking about one?s support network can have these beneficial effects ? The presence of a pet can lead to faster physiological recovery Haudenschield: Psych 531 17 ? Effect of social support on illness & health habits ? Lowers the likelihood of illness ? Speeds recovery from illness or treatment ? Reduces the risk of mortality due to serious illness ? Advantages of social support can be cumulative ? Affects health habits directly (e.g., treatment compliance, exercise) ? Biopsychosocial pathways ? Social support reduces biological responses to stress ? Social support affects endocrine functioning in response to stress Haudenschield: Psych 531 18 7 ? Moderation of stress by social support ? Direct effects hypothesis: ? Buffering hypothesis: ? Extracting support Haudenschield: Psych 531 19 ? Most effective means of support ? Social support is most effective when it meets the needs created by the stressor ? Matching hypothesis: match between one?s needs and what one receives from others in one?s social network Haudenschield: Psych 531 20 ? Effects of stress on support providers ? Enhancing social support: Increasing social support for people should be a high research priority for psychologists Haudenschield: Psych 531 21 8 ? Mindfulness training ? Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR): Haudenschield: Psych 531 22 ? Disclosure and coping ? Written exercises are designed to encourage emotional expression & have many of the same benefits ? Talking / writing my work because: ? Allows one to gain information about the event / coping ? Elicits positive reinforcement & emotional support from others ? Beneficial cognitive effects (e.g., organizing one?s thoughts, being able to find meaning in the experience) ? Provides an opportunity for emotional-approach coping & affirming one?s personal values Haudenschield: Psych 531 23 ? Coping effectiveness training ? Basic techniques of stress management ? Stress management program ? Identifying stressors ? Monitoring stress ? Identifying stress antecedents ? Avoiding negative self-talk ? Take-home assignments ? Skill acquisition ? Setting new goals ? Positive self-talk and self-instruction Haudenschield: Psych 531 24 9 ? Relaxation training and stress management ? Relaxation training therapies are valuable for physical and mental health ? Types: Haudenschield: Psych 531 25 ? Supplementary stress managements skills ? Time management & planning ? Good health habits & social skills ? Assertiveness training ? Social support ? Practicing stress management techniques and monitoring their effectiveness in daily situations Haudenschield: Psych 531 26 Samantha Chapter 1 What Is Health Psychology?
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