Chapter 8, 9
- University of Pittsburgh - Pittsburgh
- Psychology 0010
- Chapter 8, 9
Last Modified: 2011-06-29
requirements for your well-being
example: foor, water
theory that people are motivated to keep an arousal suitable to them.
(moderate level=best performance)
Over 25= overweight
Over 30= obese
Over 40= Moridly obese
a person establishes specific goals and cares about meeting them and experiences satisfaction by doing so.
People with strong achievment motivation dont cheat themselves when doing something
Maslow'd Hierarchy of Motives
fulfills from bottom up.
Physiological- food and water
Safety- nurturance, money
Belongingness and love- accepted
Self-actualization-maximize ones potential
approach-approach: two desirable outcomes
avoidance-avoidance: two undesirable outcomes
approach-avoidance: desirable and undesirable outcomes
Multiple approach-avoidance: more than one activity, both good and bad outcomes
!st american psychologist to systematically investigate role of nature with children.
Said nature and nurture work together, Greatest influence on developmental psych
Interact to make people: Similar (motor skills)
Unique (music talent)
1st two weeks
2nd week gto end of 2nd month of pregancy
Forms heart, nervous system, stomach, ovaries, testes
By the end the baby looks human
IS A CRITICAL PERIOD
Rest of Pregnancy
Organs grow and Function
can pass through the placenta
Examples: Nicotine, Cocaine, Alcohol
Eye movements slow & jerky
Can see large images up close
Likes objects with high contrast, movement, (Human Faces, especially Eyes)
Open eyes wider when hear speech
Like "Baby Talk" learn language faster when hearing it
Grasping Reflex, Rooting Reflex (looking for source of food), Sucking Reflex
Problems with reflexes = problems with brain development
Voluntary movement require maturation & experience
Basic Units of knowledge
Mental representations of what we know about and expect of world
Birth - 2yrs
Schemas sensory functions and moter skills
Focus on here and now
Learn object permanence (the idea that objects cont. to exist)
Ends with formation of mental representations
- thinking does occur
- object permanence
1st half: 2-4 years, understand, create & use symbols, talk, pretend play, symbolic drawing
2nd Half: 4-years, figure out how things work, mostly by visual appearances, cant tell dreams from reality, egocentric (all about something), lack conservation
Understand logic principals & concrete operations (counting, measuring, adding, subtracting, sort items into classes or serves)
Apply operations to real concrete objects only
11 years and over
Can think about abstractions hypothetical thinking/ logical consequences
Question Social Institutions
Stages less consistent and global
Stages develop in pockets
Childs reasoning depends on: Task difficulity, Familarity with objects, How well understand language used, Experience with similar situations.
Thinking arises and falls in "waves"
As child ages improve information processign skills, longer attention span, more efficient in processing info, memory capacity improves (from 2-3 to 4-5 given time)
Better at choosing problem-solving strateges
Cognitive skills better when dealing with familiar
individuals basic, natural disposition, evident from infercy, influenced by genetic,biology,prenatal devlopment.
3 types easy babies, difficult babies, and slow to warm up babies.
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