Type of single-movement form consisting of an opening section of music with certain characteristics, a contrasting section, and then a return to the original music at the end. Also known as three-part form or ternary form.
Music without a "program" that exists for its own sake and does not try to represent any extra-musical idea.
The perception of beauty and how we react to it.
Age of Enlightenment
Refers to Eighteenth-Century Europe during which the philosophical outlook was based on knowledge and a rational view of the world.
Age of Reason
Term used to refer to European rational philosophy from approximately 1200-1800, including the Age of Enlightenment
Music that incorporates some element of chance in either the composition or performance of the music. Advocated by American composer John Cage.
A melodic "ornament" from the Baroque period that consisted of a stressed note note that was not part of the harmony played on the beat that resolved to a consonant pitch within the chord after the beat
Music without a tonal center, or key. Developed in the early twentieth century by Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg.
The absence of a tonal center in music
A piano genre of the Romantic period developed by Frederic Chopin that is episodic in nature, derived from early poetic forms such as the English ballad and French ballade
The lower register male voice. Also refers to the lower range of pitches and types of instruments (bass notes, bass clarinet, bass fiddle, etc.)
A slow-paced French dance from the Renaissance
The Baroque period instrumental practice of coupling a low-pitched sustaining instrument such as a cello, bass, or bassoon with a harpsichord, to provide a firm harmonic and rhythmic foundation for the music.
The Catholic Church's effort in the 16th century to counter the reform movement lead by Martin Luther. The Council of Trent held from 1545-1563, defined the theological tenets of the Catholic Church that differentiated it from the reform movement.
Music for a small group of players in which each line of music is performed by only one instrument. Usually intended for performance in a small venue such as the 'chambers" of a large estate.
A philanthropic group organized for the purpose of promoting and financially supporting a choral organization. Became popular in 19th century Europe.
Historical period of music. Approximately 1750-1825
A section of music found in sonata form movements that brings either the statement of the first theme or the exposition to a final-sounding conclusion
A section of music frequently found in sonata form movements that brings the entire movement to a final-sounding
An Italian improvisatory theatre style prominent from the fourteenth through the eighteenth
A public performance of music in a formal setting by a group of musicians.
A single-movement orchestral genre of
the nineteenth century, usually programmatic and in an extended sonata form, intended as a stand-alone piece on a concert rather than as a prelude (overture) to a stage presentation such as an opera or a ballet.
In concerto grosso, the small group of soloists with bass continuo.
A three-movement instrumental genre from the Baroque period onward for one soloist with orchestral accompaniment with a movement structure of 1-Fast 2-Slow 3-Fast
A three-movement instrumental genre from the Baroque period for a small group of soloists with a movement structure of 1-Fast 2-Slow 3-Fast
sounds that feel at rest, stable, pleasing
A secondary melody in a contrapuntal texture
An early 20th century style of art promoted by Pablo Picasso and Georges Brasque in which geometrical shapes of deconstructed figures are rearranged on a canvas to represent three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface.
The adjective form of Cubism
The gradual decrease in the dynamic level (volume)
A section in a sonata form movement during which the main themes are manipulated in various ways and several key centers are explored before returning to the main theme in the following section, the recapitulation
In tonal music the harmony based on the fifth note of the scale
volume level, loudness of the music
in a fugue, a section of music during which the subject (main theme) is not heard
A family of nobility and the name of their estate in Eisenstadt, Austria. During the Classical period when Franz Joseph Haydn was the composer for the family the property belonged to the Hungarian Empire
The first major section of a sonata form movement during which the main themes are presented (exposed) to the listener in two different keys (tonal centers). The exposition is usually repeated. In a fugue the term refers to any section of the piece when the theme is heard.
An early twentieth-century musical style associated with composers such as Schoenberg, Webern, and Berg. The music is dissonant and unsettling and often deals with dark subjects.
A free-form, improvisatory-sounding keyboard genre of the Baroque period frequently paired with a highly-structured form such as the fugue. An animated feature-length film from the Walt Disney Studios released in 1940 that featured fanciful animations set to classical music compositions.
Baroque period keyboard genre employing imitative polyphony with contrasting material
The relative rate at which harmonies change in a musical composition. In a piece where the harmonies change frequently, it is said to have a fast harmonic rhythm. In a composition where the harmonies stay the same for a relatively long time before changing, it is said to have a slow harmonic rhythm.
a forerunner of the piano. The sound is produced by a series of plectrums plucking the strings inside the instrument.
polyphonic texture in which each voice imitates what a previous voice has already stated
Late 19th century musical style associated with the French composer Claude Debussy. The name comes from the painting style of the time in which subtleties of light and color were emphasized over form and line. In music the analogous concepts were emphasis on subtleties of timbre (tone color) and harmony rather than thematic development and form.
a section of music that precedes the main body of a movement such as an introduction before the exposition section of a movement in sonata form.
the tonal center of a piece, or section of a piece, of music from which the melodies are taken and around which the harmonies are based.
A type of contemporary sheet music in which the harmony of a song is indicated by the names of the chords and perhaps a diagram of them
Tonal center with a generally bright or triumphant feel to it
Margrave of Brandenburg
The title of the ruler of the German province of Brandenburg. A margrave was a governor of noble rank.
Late 20th century style characterized by having a traditional tonal center and much repetition and layering of melodic or motive elements. La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich and Philip Glass were innovative composers of this style.
kind of harmony that sounds sad, melancholy or ominous.
Tonal center with a generally dark or melancholy feel to it
A short, readily identifiable melodic, or rhythmic idea.
A part of a large musical composition with a beginning and end but does not constitute the entire composition. Similar to a single act of a multi-act play.
Also called the Broadway Musical, is a theatrical production consisting of music, singing, dancing and usually contains dialogue
"Concrete Music", an early attempt at using electronic recording equipment to manipulate sounds from the real world to create compositions that exist only on magnetic tape.
A general trend in 19th century music in which composers sought to emphasize their national, cultural and ethnic heritage by incorporating national stories and myths, fold tunes, and dances into their compositions
a 20th century style fostered by Igor Stravinsky and Paul Hindemith which looked to earlier historical eras for formal and textural ideals. Regarded as a reaction against Romantic era emotionalism
A 20th century style which looked to the Romantic period for stylistic and emotional ideals.
Orchestral Dance Suite
A genre for orchestra consisting of a series of dance movements.
A piece originally written for an instrument such as the organ or piano then subsequently arranged for an orchestra
A keyboard instrument that uses air forced through pipes of varying lengths and thicknesses to produce different pitches. It can either be mechanical or electrically operated and often has more than one keyboard that the player can set to have different tonal qualities. The organ also has a set of keys that are operated by the feet of the player which play the lowest pitched notes.
Any one of a number of melodic embellishments, common in the Baroque period, that could either be indicated in the music by the composer or added by the performer as a demonstration of virtuosic and/or improvisatory ability.
A single-movement orchestral composition that precedes a dramatic presentation such as an opera, musical, ballet, or oratorio.
A philanthropic group organized for the purpose of promoting and financially supporting an orchestral organization. Became popular in nineteenth century Europe as well as in the United States. Many orchestras originally funded by such a group continue to use the term in their name, such as the New York Philharmonic.
A string instrument that is played in a percussive manner by employing a series of hammers inside the body of the instrument that hit the strings to produce sound.
A piece of music that precedes another piece of music, such as the introduction to an act of an opera. A short, improvisatory-sounding keyboard
composition sometimes paired with a highly structured work such as a fugue.
Twentieth-century musical style associated with harsh unresolved dissonance, unpredictable but
strong rhythmic qualities, and short motivic melodies. Used to describe the style of The Rite of Spring.
describes music, usually instrumental music that represents something extramusical such as a story, place, idea or emotion
A company that purchases the rights from a composer or his heirs to print, distribute and sell his music
Question and Answer Melodies
Classical period melodic ideal in which a melody consists of two equal parts, the first ascending, the second descending
The section near the end of a movement in sonata form where both of the two main themes are restated in the tonic key
A music concert that features one performer with piano or small-ensemble accompaniment
A vocal piece that follows closely the inflections of the text, changing dramatically in mood, tempo and dynamics. Common in operas, oratorios and cantatas
The combined body of work in a particular genre or the group of compositions prepared for performance by an individual performer
A free-form composition of an effusive nature often with some nationalistic connotation
In a concerto grosso, the full complement of performers including orchestra, soloists and basso continuo
A Baroque period single-movement form consisting of repeated sections of music containing the main melody interspersed with contrasting sections with different melodic material
Historical period of music dating from 1825-1900
A classical period single-movement form consisting of repeated sections of music containing the main melody interspersed with contrasting sections with different melodic material
A very flexible approach to the rhythmic element of music characterized by speeding up and slowing down of the temp.
A type of poetic Medieval chant of the Roman Catholic Church. The sequence written by Thomas of Celano, ca. 1200, has often been sued in requiem masses.
An instrumental genre of the Baroque period onward for one instrument with a complementary piano part or for a solo piano.
Single-movement form of the classical period onward based on thematic development within a prescribed sequence of changing tonal episodes. Consists of three main sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation
A composition traditionally written for two violins, a viola and a cello.
the main theme in a fugue
Also known as a Tone Poem. A single-movement orchestral composition that is programmatic
An orchestral composition usually in four movements employing significant thematic development and a unified approach to the entire composition
An electronic instrument that often uses a keyboard similar to a piano, that produces sound based on digitally stored and manipulated files. These sounds can either be recreated sounds of acoustic instruments or new sounds created by digitally manipulating the stored files.
Refers to any piece with an overall three-part structure. AKA three-part form or A-B-A form.
Baroque period dynamic ideal in which the volume level changes abruptly rather than gradually
The compositional process whereby melodies are changed in any number of ways in order to explore the variety of interest inherent in them. Common in the Classical period, especially in movements in sonata form.
the melodic idea used as the basis of a musical composition
Theme and variations
single movement form consisting of a theme followed by a series of variations based on that theme
Refers to any piece with an overall three-part structure. AKA ternary form or A-B-A form
A free-form improvisatory-sounding keyboard genre of the Baroque period, usually paired with a fugue.
A pitch around which scales and resultant harmonies are derived
Refers to music based on tonal centers
Close spaced groupings of pitches that create an extremely dissonant sound in some 20th century compositions. Used as an alternative to traditional harmony
AKA symphonic poem. A single-movement orchestral composition that is programmatic
In serial music, the ordering of the 12 pitches within an octave in order to create a kind of scale that can be manipulated by a composer in a fairly traditional manner
in tonal music, the first pitch of a scale and the chord based on that pitch
20th century compositional style that extended Schoenberg's concept of serialism to all aspects of the music such as the rhythm, tone, color and form
In a sonata form movement, a section that "bridges" one part of the movement to the next, especially common between the statements of the two themes in the exposition, and between the development and the recapitulation
A Baroque period melodic ornament executed by a rapid alternation between the printed pitch and the next highest note in the scale.
A four-movement Baroque period instrumental genre for two high-pitched instruments such as the violin or the flute with basso continuo. Developed by the Italian composer Arcangelo Corelli
A Baroque period melodic ornament executed by playing the printed pitch and then in rapid succession, the next highest pitch, the printed pitch, the next lowest pitch, finally returning to the printed pitch.
Section in a concerto grosso movement in ritornello form when all the performing forces are playing. Also called the ripieno
Compositional style developed by early 20th century composer Arnold Schoenberg in an attempt to find compositional techniques equivalent to traditional tonal music while retaining the element of atonality
Historical period of music dating from 1900 to present
A dissonant harmony that is not followed by a consonant harmony, resulting in an extended feeling of unsettledness and unrest. Common in 20th century music.
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