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1. Which of the following biological groups is dependent on photosynthesis for its survival?
2. Which of the following statements about photosynthesis is false?
d. Photosynthesis is the reverse of cellular respiration.
3. The first phase of photosynthesis, a series of reactions that requires the absorption of photons, is referred to as the _______ phase.
d. light reactions (or photophosphorylation)
4. Which of the following occurs during the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
b. CO2 is converted into sugars.
5. Which of the following is the revised, balanced equation for the generation of sugar from sunlight, water, and CO2?
b. 6 CO2 + 12 H2O ® C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
6. When a suspension of algae is incubated in a flask in the presence of light and CO2 and then transferred to the dark, the reduction of 3-phosphoglycerate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is blocked. This reaction stops when the algae are placed in the dark because
c. the reaction requires ATP and NADPH + H+.
7. A molecule that has an absorption spectrum showing maximum absorption within the wavelengths of visible light is
e. a pigment.
8. When white light strikes a blue pigment, blue light is
d. scattered or transmitted.
9. When a photon interacts with molecules such as those within chloroplasts, the photons may
a. bounce off the molecules, having no effect.
b. pass through the molecules, having no effect.
c. be absorbed by the molecules.
10. Plants are green because
a. chlorophylls absorb blue and orange-red wavelengths of light and reflect green light.
11. The energy difference between an electron excited by a photon and the electron in its ground state is _______ of the photon.
c. equal to the energy
d. related to the wavelength
12. When a photon is absorbed by a molecule, the photon
b. raises the molecule from a ground state of low energy to an excited state.
13. A range of energy that cannot be seen by human eyes but has slightly more energy per photon than visible light is known as _______ radiation.
14. The main photosynthetic pigments in plants are _______ and _______.
d. chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b
15. Compared to long wavelength photons, short-wavelength photons have
b. more energy.
16. How do red and blue light differ from one another?
c. Their wavelengths are different.
17. Why is the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a not identical to the action spectrum of photosynthesis?
a. Accessory pigments contribute energy to drive photosynthesis.
18. The wavelength of X rays is shorter than the wavelength of infrared rays. Which of the following is true?
a. X rays have more energy per photon than infrared rays have.
19. A graph that plots the rate at which CO2 is converted to glucose versus the wavelength of light illuminating a leaf is called
e. an action spectrum.
20. The photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a absorbs
b. orange-red and blue light.
21. Accessory pigments
d. allow plants to absorb visible light of intermediate wavelengths.
22. What is the difference between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b?
c. Chlorophyll a has a methyl group, whereas chlorophyll b has an aldehyde group.
23. When a photon is absorbed by chlorophyll,
a. the chlorophyll becomes “excited,” or energized.
24. The precise moment when light energy is captured in chemical energy is the point at which
c. chlorophyll is oxidized.
25. In noncyclic photophosphorylation, water is used for the
c. reduction of chlorophyll.
26. In noncyclic photophosphorylation, electrons from _______ replenish chlorophyll molecules that have given up electrons.
27. The O2 gas produced during photosynthesis is derived from
28. The energy to hydrolyze water comes from
a. oxidized chlorophyll.
29. Photosynthesis is the process that uses light energy to extract hydrogen atoms from
30. In noncyclic photophosphorylation, the chlorophyll in photosystem I is reduced by
b. an electron from the transport chain of
32. The Z scheme is
a. the characteristic path of electrons when they are bounced out of the pigments of the reaction center.
33. The light energy absorbed by the P680 reaction center
a. oxidizes water.
34. In cyclic photophosphorylation, chlorophyll is reduced by
35. Free energy is released in cyclic photophosphorylation
c. during the fluorescence of chlorophyll.
36. During cyclic photophosphorylation, the energy to produce ATP is provided by
d. the redox reactions of the electron transport chain.
37. In both photosynthesis and respiration, protons are pumped across a membrane during
a. electron transport.
38. Photosynthesis and respiration have which of the following in common?
a. In eukaryotes, both processes reside in specialized organelles.
b. ATP synthesis in both processes relies on the chemiosmotic mechanism.
c. Both use electron transport.
39. The Calvin–Benson cycle uses more ATP than NADPH + H+. The needed ATP comes from
d. cyclic P700.
40. The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the energy for the production of ATP comes from
c. a proton gradient set up across the thylakoid membrane.
41. The net energy outcome of cyclic photophosphorylation is
42. Cyclic electron transport
a. occurs when the ratio of NADPH + H+ to NADP+ in the chloroplasts of some organisms is high.
b. is a series of redox reactions.
c. stores its released energy as a proton gradient.
d. is completed when the electron returns to P700+.
43. Photophosphorylation provides the Calvin–Benson cycle with
e. ATP and NADPH.
44. Which of the following scientific tools “cracked” the Calvin–Benson cycle?
b. Paper chromatography
45. In bright light, the pH of the thylakoid space
a. can become more acidic.
46. The enzyme rubisco is found in
48. During CO2 fixation, CO2 combines with
e. 1,5-ribulose bisphosphate.
49. The NADPH required for the reduction of 3PG to G3P comes from
b. the light reactions.
50. How many moles of CO2 must enter the Calvin–Benson cycle for the synthesis of one mole
51. The NADPH required for CO2 fixation is formed
c. during the light reactions.
52. After the removal of carbon, the oxygen in CO2 ends up
b. attached to carbon and hydrogen to form sugar (G3P).
53. When CO2 is added to RuBP, the first stable product synthesized is
54. The energy source for the synthesis of carbohydrates in the Calvin–Benson cycle is
e. NADPH + H+ and ATP.
55. The Calvin cycle uses _______ to produce glucose.
c. NADPH + H+
56. How is the Calvin cycle connected to the light reactions?
a. The light-induced pH changes activate rubisco.
b. The light-induced electron flow changes the shape of four Calvin-cycle enzymes.
d. The Calvin cycle needs the ATP produced in the light reactions.
57. Heterotrophs are dependent on autotrophs for their food supply. Autotrophs can make their own food by
b. using light and simple chemicals to make reduced carbon compounds.
b. uses ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions.
59. When RuBP reacts with O2,
a. it cannot react with CO2.
60. During photorespiration, rubisco uses _______ as a substrate.
61. Photorespiration starts in
62. Photorespiration reduces the net carbon fixed by the Calvin cycle by _______ percent.
63. In C4 plants, CO2 is first fixed into a compound called
64. How does rubisco “decide” whether to act as an oxygenase or a carboxylase?
e. As the ratio of CO2 to O2 falls in the leaf, the reaction of rubisco with O2 is favored and photorespiration proceeds.
65. In C4 plants, the function of the four-carbon compound that is synthesized in the mesophyll cells is to
c. carry CO2 to the bundle sheath cells.
66. In C4 plants, starch grains are found in the chloroplasts of
e. bundle sheath cells.
67. The enzyme PEP carboxylase
a. can trap CO2 even at relatively low CO2 concentrations.
68. In cacti, CO2 is stored for use in the Calvin–Benson cycle
b. during the evening.
69. The level of atmospheric CO2 has varied considerably over the years. Currently, the level of atmospheric CO2
b. favors C4 plants.
70. In plants, the reactions of glycolysis occur
e. in the cytosol.
71. Plants classified as CAM store CO2
a. by making oxaloacetate.
c. in malic acid
72. Photosynthesis takes place in plants only in the light. Respiration takes place
d. both with and without light.
73. Photosynthesis and respiration are linked through the
a. Calvin cycle.
e. utilizes only a small portion of the energy of sunlight.
1. Atmospheric CO2 enters plant leaves through openings called _______.
2. The dark reactions take place in the _______.
3. In the 1800s, the summarized chemical reaction for photosynthesis was incorrect because it left out _______ as a product.
4. Molecules that absorb wavelengths in the visible spectrum are called _______.
5. The wide range of wavelengths that photons can have is shown by the _______.
6. The molecular structure of chlorophyll a is (different from/similar to) _______ the molecular structure of chlorophyll b.
7. Carotenoids and phycobilins absorb photons between the red and blue wavelengths and are known as _______.
8. In noncyclic photophosphorylation, the electrons for the reduction of chlorophyll in photosystem II come from _______.
9. NADP is the abbreviation for _______.
10. During the light reactions of photosynthesis, the synthesis of _______ is coupled to the diffusion of protons.
11. The O2 found in Earth’s atmosphere is generated from photosystem _______ of noncyclic photophosphorylation.
12. The light-driven production of ATP from ADP and Pi
in the chloroplast is a chemiosmotic mechanism known as ______.
13. In both photosynthesis and respiration, _______ synthesis is coupled to the diffusion of protons across a membrane.
14. During cyclic photophosphorylation, the energy of photons is converted to the chemical energy of the product, _______.
15. During cyclic photophosphorylation, _______ rather than NADP+ receives the electron from ferredoxin.
16. A group of scientists led by _______ conducted experiments demonstrating that RuBP is the CO2 acceptor in the dark reactions of photosynthesis.
17. The most abundant enzyme in the biosphere is _______.
18. Photosynthetic organisms that can harvest light to form carbohydrates are called _______.
19. When _______ are exposed to light and CO2, four-carbon compounds (oxaloacetate) are the first carbon-containing products.
20. During the process of _______, rubisco catalyzes the reaction of RuBP with oxygen.
21. In C3 plants, the Calvin–Benson cycle occurs in the chloroplasts of _______ cells, whereas in C4 plants the cycle occurs in the _______ cells.
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