The term geographers use to represent the interdependence between geographic areas. The amount of spatial interaction is a function of the size of the interdependent populations and the distance between them.
The decline of an activity, a function, or an amount of interaction with increasing distance from the point of origin. The distance decay principle implies that as the distance away from the home or workplace increases, the number of possible face-to-face contacts usually decreases.
The distance beyond which cost, effort, means, and perception play an overriding role in our willingness to travel.
The emotional attachment to, and the defense of, home ground.
Area within which we move freely on our rounds of regular activity, sharing that space with others who are also about their daily affairs.
The types of trips individuals make, and thus the extent of their activity space, are partly determined by three variables:
1) People's stage in life (age)
2) The means of mobility at their command
3) The opportunities implicit in their daily activities
Stage in Life
Membership in specific age groups.
The ability to travel.
The mobility of individuals in countries or in sections of countries with high incomes is relatively great; people's activity space horizons are broad.
The individual assessment of the availability of possible activities.
The process by which a concept, practice, or substance spreads from its point of origin to new territories.
The changes to a culture that result from the adoption of new ideas.
The spread of a concept, a practice, or an article from one area to others through contact and/or the exchange of information.
A classification of objects into categories, so that categories are increasingly complex or have increasingly higher status
The spread of innovation up or down a hierarchy of places.
The permanent relocation of both place of residence and activity space. Extremely important as an expression of human spatial behavior.
Types of Migration
1) Intercontinental Migrations-movements between continents
2) Intracontinental and Interregional Migrations-movements between countries and within countries
3) Forces/Involuntary Migrations-relocation decisions are made solely by people other than the migrants themselves
4) Reluctant Migration-less than fully voluntary migration
5) Voluntary Migration-individual response to the factors affecting all spatial interaction decisions
Negative home decisions that impel the decision to migrate.
Presumed positive attractions of the migration destination.
What has impelled the most migrations?
Economic considerations have impelled more migrations than any other incentive.
Some 30% of the world's population--nearly 2 billion people--have less than $1.00 per day income.
Incentives to Migrate
1) Economic Considerations-to escape poverty, unemployment, etc.
2) Political Incentive-escape war and persecution at home and pursue freedom in a new location
3) Cultural Variables
4) Amenities-particulary attractive or agreeable features that are characteristic of a place
The value that an individual puts on a given residential site.
The level of accomplishment or ambition that an individual sees for himself or herself.
A migration in which an eventual long-distance relocation is undertaken in stages as, for example, from farm to village to small town to city.
Indicates that a mover is part of an established migrant flow from a common origin to a prepared destination.
Barriers to Migration
1) Physical Barriers
2) Economic Barriers
3) Cultural Factors
4) Political Barriers
An area or areas that dominate a locale's in- and out-migration process.
The tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns, by economic trade considerations, or by some other affinity.
Return (Counter) Migration
The return of migrants to the regions from which they had earlier emigrated.
The tendency for individuals to move from small places to larger ones.
The increasing interconnection of all parts of the world.
Transnational Corporations (TNCs)
Companies that have headquarters in one country and subsidiary companies, factories, and other facilities in several countries.
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
Bring together people in far parts of the world in pursuit of mutual goals.
I = interaction (e.g., migration, trade, commuting) a,b = places X = “attractiveness” of place (e.g., market size as measured by population or total income) D = impact of “distance” (measured in time, miles, etc.) n = often varies between 1.5 and 2.5 c = calibrator Iab = XaXb/Dn
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