Chapter 8: Europe Introduction ? Europe is one of the most diverse regions. ? Within an area smaller than North America, there are a variety of ? Climates ? Landforms ? Agricultures ? There are 40 countries with many different ? Languages ? Money ? cultures ? Because of this diversity, Europe has a long history of warfare usually along nationalist lines. ? In the 20th century, Europe was the principal battleground of two world wars and the 44-year Cold War. ? Europe is currently at a point of both globalization, with the formation of a supranational political and economic entity, the European Union (EU), and (somewhat contradictorily) national identity (Fig. 8.2), with the dissolution of several Eastern European countries, most notably Yugoslavia. Environmental Geography: Human Transformance of a Diverse Landscape ? Introduction ? Europe?s environmental diversity is extraordinary despite its relatively small size (fig. 8.3) ? Europe has great latitudinal extent (distance from equator), from the Arctic to the Mediterranean subtropics (Fig. 8.4) ? Europe?s latitudinal controls are modified by the interaction of land and large bodies of water: ? Atlantic Ocean ? Black Sea ? Baltic Sea ? Mediterranean Sea ? The long history of human settlement has changed Europe?s landscapes in fundamental ways over thousands of years ? Environmental Issues, Local and Global, East and West (Fig. 8.5) ? Europe?s long history of agriculture, resource-extraction, industrial manufacturing, and urbanization has created many serious environmental problems that cross national boundaries including ? air pollution ? Acid rain ? Water pollution ? The European Union has been successful in addressing these problems with regional solutions ? Western Europe has one of the ?greenest? environments ? Eastern Europe, with its communist economic system, had few environmental regulations, so its environment is not good (Fig. 8.6) ? Regional cooperation is needed to address all these concerns ? Now that East European countries are part of the EU, those countries are getting cleaned up (fig. 8.7) ? Landform and Landscape Regions (Fig. 8.8) ? European Lowlands (also called the North European Plain): ? Southwest France to Poland, including southeast England ? Has a high population density ? Includes many of the most important rivers and port cities ? South of the Rhine delta has good farmlands (Fig. 8.9) ? Alpine Mountain System: ? this east-west series of mountains stretches from the Atlantic to the Black Sea ? Pyrenees form borders between Spain and France, peaks top 10,000 feet, Basque and Catalan people live in the Pyrenees ? Alps extend 500 miles from France to Austria; highest in West, reaching 15,000 feet ? Appenines, the ?spine of Italy;? include volcanoes Mt. Etna and Mt. Vesuvius ? Carpathians, under 9,000 feet, stretch from eastern Austria to Romania and Yugoslavia ? Central Uplands: ? Between Alps and Lowlands ? From France to Czech Republic ? Contain many raw materials, like iron and coal, for manufacturing ? Western Highlands ? From Portugal to Finland, including British Isles ? Fjords (flooded U-shaped valley coastlines) found in the north ? This shield landscape contains 600 million year old rocks exposed by recent glaciation (Fig. 8.10) ? Europe?s Climates (fig. 8.11) ? Maritime West Coast Climate along the Atlantic Coast: ? No months below freezing, but cold, rain, and snow are common ? Summers are often cloudy and overcast with drizzle or rain ? Continental climate farther inland: ? A month or two averages below freezing temperatures ? Much of the precipitation comes as rain from summer frontal systems and local thundershowers ? Mediterranean Climate in southern Europe, from Spain to Greece: ? Dry summer season ? Nice weather for tourists ? may include drought ? irrigation is common (Fig. 8.12) ? Seas, Rivers, Ports, and Coastlines ? Europe is a maritime region ? Even landlocked countries have access to the ocean by way of interconnected rivers and canals. ? Rivers and Ports: ? Many rivers are navigable and connected by canals that allow barge traffic throughout Europe ? Rivers include ? Loire ? Seine ? Rhine ? Elbe (to Atlantic) ? Vistula ? Danube (Europe?s longest, which flows to the Black Sea) ? Rhone (flows into the Mediterranean Sea) ? Europe has many port cities: ? Bordeau (Garonne) ? Le Havre (Seine) ? London (Thames) ? Rotterdam (Rhine) ? Hamburg (Elbe) ? Szcezin (oder) ? Gdansk (Wisla) ? As Mediterranean forests were cut, erosion on the hills carried sediment down the rivers to their deltas ? This sediment filled in the historic ports used by the Greeks and Romans. ? Reclaiming the Dutch Coastline: ? Polders ? diked agricultural settlements (fig. 8.13) ? Windmills were used to drain marshes ? Rising sea levels from global warming again make the Netherlands vulnerable to flooding Population and Settlement: Slow Growth and Rapid Migration ? Population Density in Core and Periphery: ? The highest densities are found in the historical industrial core (Fig. 8.14): ?England ?Netherlands ?Northern France ?Northern Italy ?Western Germany ? Natural Growth: Beyond the Demographic Transition ? Death rates are higher than birth rates (table 8.1) ? Immigration prevents population loss ? Some European countries offer financial incentives to couples who have children ? Causes of decline: ? These populations are ? Highly urbanized ? Highly industrialized ? Women are increasingly in the workplace ? Widespread contraception ? Lack of affordable housing ? Migration to and within Europe (fig 8.15) ? Widespread resistance to unlimited immigration into Europe: ?Scarce jobs should go to Europeans first ?Concerns about foreign terrorism and dilution of national culture ? But when the economy is good, labor shortages could be problematic and solved only through immigration; younger immigrants are needed to keep up tax revenues ? The European Union is working toward a common immigration policy ? Guest workers: ? Immigrants brought into a country to work, usually low-wage ? Most guest workers in Germany are Turkish ? European countries see migrants from their former colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean (Fig. 8.16) ? The Landscapes of Urban Europe ? The Past in the Present ? Three historical eras dominate most European city landscapes (Fig. 8.17) ? Medieval (900-1500 AD) ? Narrow, winding streets ? Three- or four-story masonry buildings ? cities were densely settled ? buildings were right next to streets ? green space was only in parks and public squares ? Now living here is undesirable ? Many European cities are making laws that protect their historic medieval landscapes (fig. 8.18) ? Renaissance Baroque (1500-1800): ? wider streets ? larger gardens ? Monuments ? more open spaces ? Defensive walls and fortifications (because of the invention of high powered assault artillery) ? The Industrial Period (1800-present): ? walls and fortifications were removed ? factories and industrial areas were built on the edge of the city ? Railroad tracks and urban sprawl development ? Protecting the Sense of Place ? Europeans take strong sense of cultural identity from their cities and protect their urban landscapes ? Europeans protect skylines by prohibiting building of high-rises in central cities pushing them to outlying areas ? Preservation of historic buildings is an important part of the European experience and includes the protection of skylines and historical preservation (Fig. 8.19) ? Paris is a leader in historic preservation ? Landscape protection is also important Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Mosaic of Differences ? Differences in languages, customs, and religions have created local and regional identities that have, in turn, caused conflict ? European cultures have influenced many world regions through colonialism ? Many European cultures are trying to protect themselves from U.S.-influenced popular culture (Fig. 8.20) ? Geographies of Language (fig. 8.21) ? Language has always been an important part of nationalism and group identity in Europe ? Most Europeans learn at least two languages ? Geographies of Religion, Past and Present (Fig. 8.23) ? Many of today?s conflicts stem from historical religious differences ? The Schism Between Western and Eastern Christianity: ? When Greek missionaries refused to accept the Roman Catholic hierarchy and control by Roman bishops, the two groups split in 1054 AD ? The Eastern church split into Orthodox sects closely linked to specific nations and states ? Western Christian Churches use the Latin alphabet ? Eastern Orthodox Churches use the Cyrillic alphabet ? The Protestant Revolt ? In the 16th century, Protestants split from the Catholic Church ? Northern Ireland is the only remaining place where there are still tensions between these two groups ? Conflicts with Islam: ? Muslims were reasonably tolerant of Christians and their religion in lands they conquered, but Christians did not reciprocate ? The purpose of the Christian Crusades was to reclaim Jerusalem from the Turks. ? Ottoman Turks expanded Islam into the Balkans ? A Geography of Judaism ? Jews in Europe were forced from Palestine during the Roman era, settled in Moorish Spain where Islam showed greater tolerance for Judaism than Christianity did ? When Christians conquered this Muslim-controlled area, they expelled the Jews, and many settled in an area of Eastern Europe called ?the Pale? ? During World War II, Nazis from Germany killed around 6 million Jewish people while others suffered in concentration camps ? Since 1990, more than 100,000 Jews moved from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Eastern Europe to Germany (Fig. 8.24) ? The Patterns of Contemporary Religion: ? Western Europe is becoming more secularized ? organized religion does not have the influence it once had ? Conflict in Northern Ireland between Irish nationalists (mostly Roman Catholic) and British loyalists (mostly Protestant) has religious aspects (Fig. 8.25) ? European Culture in Global Context ? Globalization and Cultural Nationalism: ? Since WWII, Europe has been inundated with America through music, television, and consumer goods ? U.K., Spain, Italy, and Hungary accept it ? France and Germany have taken measures to prevent this invasion ? Migrants and Culture: ? Influx of Muslim migrants (4.5 million) is adding a new cultural element ? French leaders attempted to prohibit Muslim women and girls from wearing a head scarf, triggering riots ? Many European countries contain nationalistic parties with disguised agendas of excluding migrants (fig. 8.27) Geopolitical Framework: A Dynamic Map ? There are 40 independent states in the small area of Europe ? Europe invented the nation-state: a relatively homogenous cultural group (nation) with its own political territory (state) ? Within the last two decades, seven new states have appeared in Eastern Europe, more than half through war (Fig. 8.28) ? Although this region has been ravaged by war in the past, most of its people now show a remarkable spirit of cooperation ? Redrawing the Map of Europe Through War ? In the 20th Century, Europe?s borders have been changed by two major wars (Fig. 8.29) ? World War I (1914-1918): ?Two groups of opponents: France, Great Britain, Russia vs. Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary ?Treaty of Versailles ended the war, punished the losers through loss of territory, and created several ?new? countries: (Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) ? World War II (1939-1945): ? Worldwide depression in 1930s brought economic hardship to Europe: ? High unemployment ? Food shortages ? Political unrest ? Three ideologies competed to solve Europe?s problems: ? Western democracy and capitalism ? Communism from the U.S.S.R. ? Fascist totalitarianism from Italy and Germany ? Germany began to take over much of Continental Europe ? Again, two groups of opponents: Germany and Italy (?Axis?) vs. Britain, France, U.S.S.R., U.S. (?Allies?) ? Japan joined the Axis and attacked the U.S.?s Pearl Harbor in Hawaii ? Axis surrendered in 1945 ? Allies divided Europe, and the Cold War began ? A Divided Europe, East and West ? Cold War Geography: ? Russia (U.S.S.R.) occupied Eastern Europe, Western Allies occupied Western Europe; city of Berlin and Germany were divided ? U.S.S.R. used its occupied countries as a buffer zone, a region that would protect Russia from further European invasion ? Border between east and west was closed off by what came to be called the Iron Curtain (with the exception of the concrete Berlin Wall, this was not a physical entity, but rather a political idea) (Fig. 8.30) ?there was a constant threat of war: ? North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Western Europe ? the Warsaw Pact countries of Eastern Europe ?Both sides stockpiled weapons and waged a propaganda war raising fear between the groups ? The Cold War Thaw: ? Began in 1989, when Poland elected a non-Communist leader ? East and West Berliners tore down the wall (Fig. 8.31) ? Political instability in the U.S.S.R., and a desire for economic and political restructuring in the countries of Eastern Europe were key causes of the thaw ? Revolutions in Warsaw Pact countries were non-violent except in Romania ? One outcome was a revival of national feelings in the region with Czechoslovakia dividing peacefully while Yugoslavia divided as a result of armed conflicts Economic and Social Development: Integration and Transition ? Europe ? Is the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution ? Invented the modern economics system of industrial capitalism ? Eastern Europe is now in a period of chaotic economic, political, and social transition (table 8.2) ? Europe?s Industrial Revolution (1730-1850) ? Industrial Revolution brought two fundamental changes: ? Machines replaced human labor in many manufacturing processes ? Inanimate (rather than people or animals) energy sources (such as water, steam, coal, petroleum) powered the new machines ? Centers of Change: ? Yorkshire and Lancashire, England were the centers of innovation for the industrialization of textile production ? These cities had water sources to power waterwheels (Fig. 8.32) ? raw materials (wool from nearby sheep and cotton from the U.S.) were available here ?Improvements in steam technology made waterwheels obsolete ?Coal-based coke (replacing wood charcoal) was a cheap fuel source, so factories were built near coal fields ?Iron and steel manufacturing became important ?London became an important port and financial center ? Development of Industrial Regions in Continental Europe: ? First, industrial regions were established around 1820 on the French-Belgian border, near the Sambre and Meuse Rivers (Fig. 8.33) ? Coal to fuel the factories was found nearby ? By 1850, there were more: ? Germany - Ruhr district (Fig. 8.34) ? Used up its iron ore deposits by the early 1900s ? Was the industrial strength behind the Nazi?s war machine ? Was heavily bombed during WWII ? ECSC and EEC: ?(European Coal and Steel Community and European Economic Community) ?Ancestors of today?s European Union ?From its start as a coordinated effort to drop coal and steel tariffs, ECSC grew to create a common market for member countries (France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg): the European Economic Community (EEC) ? European Community and Union: ? In 1965, the EEC created a council, court, parliament, and commission and changed its name to the European Community (EC) ? By 1991, the EC had become the European Union (EU), and more members joined (Fig. 8.35) ? The EU has a wider mission that includes ? common foreign policies ? mutual security agreements ? greater economic integration ? a common currency ? Euroland: The European Monetary Union: ? On January 1, 1999, 12 EU members adopted the Euro, a new common currency for business and trade transactions ? On January 1, 2002, regular people in the countries using the currency (?Euroland?) started using the euro in their everyday lives ? Countries using the euro are also committed to a common set of fiscal policies to ? control inflation ? coordinate economic activity ? standardize wages and benefits ? Economic Integration, Disintegration, and Transition in Eastern Europe ? Historically, Eastern Europe has been less developed economically than Western Europe ? It does not have many natural resources ? It has been under the control of outsiders (Ottomans, Hapsburgs, Germans, and Soviet Russians) ? The Soviet economic planning of the Cold War period attempted to develop Eastern Europe and serve Soviet goals ? The collapse of the Soviet system cast Eastern Europe into chaos ? The Results of Soviet Economic Planning: ? The Soviet Russians (communists) redeveloped Eastern Europe after WWII as a command economy (centrally planned and controlled economy, generally associated with socialist or communist countries, in which all goods, services, agricultural and industrial products were strictly regulated) ? Agriculture was ? Collectivized (state-owned) ? Mechanized ? Centrally planned ? The state ? created manufacturing jobs ? Subsidized industry ? The Results: ? Collectivization of agriculture did not improve food production ? Food shortages were common, especially in cities ? Farmers fared better than city dwellers since they had personal gardens to meet their own food needs ? During the Soviet era, many new factories were built (in cities and in rural areas) paid for by the government ? CMEA planners focused on heavy industry (e.g., steel instead of consumer goods), but became dependent on cheap fuel and raw materials from the U.S.S.R. ? Transition and Turmoil Since 1991: ? After the U.S.S.R. disintegrated, countries in its sphere of influence (i.e., Eastern Europe) went through tremendous changes ? Russia stopped exporting cheap natural gas and petroleum to Eastern Europe causing industrial production to collapse there (Fig. 8.39) ? Most East European countries have redirected their economic and political attention to the West ? Many introduced privatization (the transfer of companies owned by the state to private hands) ? Now that western goods are available, few can afford them The End
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