Extra Credit Quiz Chapter 9 Bipedalism is the main characteristic that distinguishes humans from apes. True Bipedalism has disadvantages to quadrupedalism, including: Development of arthritis and back injuries. The oldest pre-australopithecine, or a fossil link between late Miocene apes and australopithecines, found to date is: Sagelanthropus tchadensis The best-known australopithecine, represented by hundreds of fossils and dozens of individuals, is ___ found mostly at Laetoli and Hadar. A. afarensis Robust australopithecines differ from earlier australopithecines in their: All of the Above: smaller front teeth, larger faces, and larger back teeth. Speech and material culture preceded bipedal locomotion in the evolution of hominids. False Apes use their teeth to crush food more than humans do. False The ___ hypothesis about hominid bipedalism states that energy-efficient walking on two legs arose so that hominids could search for food that was dispersed as a result of climatic changes at the end of the Miocene. Patchy Forest The ___ hypothesis proposed by Owen Lovejoy states that the advantages of males carrying food and bringing it to females and young could have contributed to the rise of bipedalism. Provisioning The difference in anatomy in these bones illustrates that: Apes could grasp tree branches better than humans. Varicose veins are a consequence of bipedal posture. True Robust australopithecine species include: A. aethiopicus These footprints found in the ash at Laetoli show that hominids had which of the following characteristics of bipedalism: All of the Above: nondivergent big toes, double arches, and rounded heels. The large sagittal crest and large teeth of this skull make it a rovust australopithecine. True ___ branched off around 3.5 mya and gave rise to at least 2 branches of hominids: later australopithecines and the genus Homo. A. afarensis Hominids have a diastema between their incisors and canines. False The ___ fossil, mistakenly thought of as the missing link between humans and apes, had a large cranial capacity but ape-like dentition. Piltdown The Oldowan tool complex is attributed to ___, making that hominid species the first to use tools. A. ghari This picture shows the skeleton of the most famous A. afarensis individual, nicknamed: Lucy The genus Australopithecine includes hominids that lived about: 4 -1 mya Kamoya Kimeu, a Kenyan whose Hominid Gang has found numerous fossil remains, worked primarily with: Richard Leakey Bipedalism?s advantages over quadrupedalism include: All of the Above: increased ability to see greater distances, ability to run long distances, and free hands for tool use. Humans differ from apes because: Humans use language. The characteristic of this skull indicate that it was an ancient hominid. True The oldest australopithecine species is: A. anamensis
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