the states power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations
Seven laws of state growth
1. The space of the state grows with the expansion of the population having the same culture 2. territorial growth follows other aspects of development 3. a state grows by absorbing smaller units 4. the frontier is the peripheral organ of the state; hence, it is not permanent 5. states in the course of their growth seek to absorb politically valuable territory 6. the impetus for growth comes to a primitive state from a more highly developed civilization
Friedrich Ratzel geopolitical theory
social Darwinism influenced portrays the state as behaving like a biological organism, with its growth and change seen as natural and inevitable
boundaries are important because they enable territoriality to be defined and enforced and allow conflict and competition to be managed and channeled. also an important element in place making
The delimited area over which a state exercises control and which is recognized by other states may include both land and water
occur where boundaries are weakly developed
involve zones of underdeveloped territoriality, areas that are distinctive for their marginality rather than for their belonging
formal boundaries tend first to follow natural barriers.
where no natural features occur, formal boundaries tend to be fixed along a normal straight line.
a group of people sharing certain elements of culture, such as religion, language, history or political identity
an ideal form consisting of a homogeneous group of people governed by their own state.
the exercise of the state power over people and territory, recognized by other states and codified by international law
a category of belonging to a nation-state that includes civil, political and social rights.
the feeling of belonging to a nation, as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs
centripetal forces vs. centrifugal forces
strengthen and unify something
divide or tend to pull something apart
allocated power to units of local government within the country
US - systems of state, county and city/town government
developed an approach to the state
to see the state as an ideological force operating through the institutions of the schools, the media, the family and religion to produce citizens who conform to state expectations
- see the state as repressive: it uses force through different institutions like police, army and courts
institutionalized way of working
an army turns civilians into soldiers through the conjunction of power and knowledge
a discourse that positions the West as culturally superior to the east
North and south divide
differentiation made between the colonizing states of the northern hemisphere and the formerly colonized states of the southern hemisphere
the reacquisition by colonized peoples of control over their own territory
the gulf between communist and non communist countries
held that of one country in a region chose or was forced to accept a communist political and economic system, neighboring countries would fall to communism as well.
the threat or use of force to bring about political change
new world order
the triumph of capitalism over communism
the deliberate use of microorganisms or toxins from living organisms to induce death or disease
collective or individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature
global civil society
composed of the broad range of institutions that operate between the private and the state
the right of a group with a distinctive politico-territorial identity to determine its own destiny, as least in part, through the control of its own territory
the feeling of collective identity based on a populations political-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries
an extreme devotion to local interests and customs, should not be confused with regionalism
a system in which public policies and officials are directly chosen by popular vote
a system of government formally structures by area, not by social groups
the process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas
the defining and redefining of territorial district boundaries
practice of redistricting for partisan purposed
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