Last Modified: 2011-11-30
* state of atmosphere at a specific PLACE & TIME on Earth's surface.
* Long term average valves of weather elements, temp & precipitation.
* Average based on 30 years
* critical to climate: 1) intensity of radiation 2) length of day related to teh Earth-Sun geometric relationship
* flow predictable w/distinct pressure systems associated w/ specific zones
= Results w/
* ITCZ = heavy or persistent precipitation
* STH = dry
* Midlatitude cyclones = highly variable weather from day to day
* proximity to water impact temp & direction of airflow
* interior of continent - annual temp fluctuates
* ocean - annual temp moderate
* Evaporation of large amount of water vapor = associated with warm oceans
* cold oceans = drying effect on adjacent continent location
* estimated of the amount of water used by plants with an unlimited water supply.
* ET increases with increasing temp, daylight length, wind strength and decreases when humidity increases
* changes take place due to factors such as insolation and vapor gradient.
Tropical Monsoon (Am)
Tropical Savanna (Aw)
Cold MidLatitude Desert (BWk)
Hot Low-Latitude Steppe (BSh)
Cold MidLatitude Steppe (BSk)
Marine West-Coast (Cfb, Cfc)
Mediterranean Dry-Summer (Csa, Csb)
Humid Continental Mid-Summer ((Dfb, Dwb)
Subarctic (Dfc, Dwc, Dwd)
Ice Cap (EF)
* Recognized the relationship b/w major vegetation regions and regional climate characteristics.
* contains six major climate groups, broken into as many as 23 subcategories.
* Based on average monthly temp & precip and annual precipitation
* describes regional climate conditions but ignores local factors ie wind speed, cloud cover
* ITCZ - tropical - wet
* STH - 30 N/S - drier
* Windward side - heavy precipitation b/c air cools adiabatically
* Leeward side - (rain shadow) due to descent of air and associate adiabatic warming
* Topo regions influence airflow result in Chinook winds & cool-air drainage
- #of hours of sunlight in a day change many places over year.
- isolation & temp highly variable b/w winter and summer - tropical regions very little different, reflected in the relatively consistent temp & precipitatin of tropical climates
* Study of spatial/geo distribution & the character of Earth's climate
* Important for agriculture, architecture, ecology, forestry, econmics
* Important b/c climate influences human behavior and nature processes
* Based on concept of (potential ET) and (Actual ET)
* Identifies three basic climate zones: Low-Latitude, Mid-Latitude and High-Latitude
* Subdivided on basis of length of time and by what amount, actual ET falls below Potential ET
* Not used elsewhere in the world - instead Koppen climate classification system is used.
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