The awareness of phonemes as units of words - a component of phonological awareness.
The process that creates new words by adding certain suffixes or prefixes (derivational morphemes) to existing words (such as dance + er = dancer; sad + ness = sadness).
Also knwon as grammatical morphology. The structure of words that results from combining word roots with endings that mark grammatical relations, such as the -s at the end of verbs to mark agreement with a third-person subject ("he runs") or the -ed at the end of verbs to mark the past tense.
The creation of a single new word by combining two existing words (such as birdhouse).
The property of a story that pertains to how the events of the story are related to each other. In a coherent story, the events in sequence are related to each other in a meaningful way.
The property of a story that pertains to how the sentences of the story are linked together. In a cohesive story, linguistic devices, for example, pronominal reference, link sentences to each other.
The structure all stories follow. There are different proposals for what this structure is, and this structure varies as a function of culture. For example, Western stories tend to consist of a setting plus one or more episodes. The setting includes the place and the characters; each episode includes an initiating event, a problem or obstacle, and a resolution of the problem.
The evaluation of one's own understanding. Young children seem to accept and act on inadequate messages in part because they don't realize that they don't understand.
Decontextualized language use
Language use in which the words stand on their own without support from the nonlinguistic context.
Skills and knowledge about literacy that children acquire before they learn to read, such as knowing how to hold a book and turn the pages, knowing that words and stories are contained in the print on the page, and knowing that the print on signs and labels contains information.
Literacy practices that occur in the home, including reading labels, newspapers, magazines, and books and writing lists, notes, and letters.
Writing systems in which printed symbols correspond to phonemes. Examples include English, Russian and Korean.
The association of letters with phonemes that characterizes English and other alphabetic writing systems.
The process of mentally going through the sound of the word to get from the printed word to the word's meaning.
The effect of early reading skill on later reading skill in which early good readers improve faster than early poor readers with the result that the gap between skilled and poor readers grows, (Named after the biblical passage according to which the rich become richer and the poor become poorer.)
The method of reading instruction that involves explicit teaching of letter-sound correspondences.
The condition in which a child's reading ability is lower than would be expected on the basis of his or her IQ.
The method of reading instruction based on the notions that children do not need explicit phonics instruction to learn to read and that children will learn to read if they are surrounded by interesting print material. Activities focus on reading for meaning rather than instruction in letter-sound correspondences.
Want to see the other 18 Flashcards in Chapter 9?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!