1830?s and 1840?s-expression that reflected the widely shared concern about social changes arising from industrialization and urbanization. Affected all forms of art and literature. Romantics were concerned and showed it in their work.
The Fighting ?Temeraire?
painting by leading romantic painter-Joseph Turner in 1838. Showed the victory of steam power over conventional sailing ships, shows the passing of old ways.
Pen name of French novelist Amandine Aurore Dupin, showed independence in 1830?s by dressing like man and smoking cigars. Wrote novel ?Indiana? (1832) about an unhappily married woman that was read all over Europe. George Sandism became expression of disdain for independent women in France.
The Opium War
1839-1842, war between China and Great Britain, war over import of Opium to China. China didn?t want more but GB wanted to keep selling it to them, started when China expelled British merchants from South China in 1839. Britain bombarded Chinese coastal cities and war ended in treaty of Nanking which opened up 4 Chinese ports to Europeans and Britain took sovereignty over island of Hong Kong.
pamphlet by Karl Marx and Engels in 1848. In Paris, declared communists must aim for downfall of bourgeoisie and the ascendency of the proletariat, abolition of old society, foundation of new society w/o classes or private property. Eventually would become touchstone of communist revolution all over the world.
started in 1845, famine all over Europe, not enough food for people, horrible in Ireland. People starving starting to protest, losing jobs, and jeopardized social peace.
The Crimean War
1853-1856, war that started between Russian and Ottoman Empires but ended with long-lasting consequences for much of Europe. On peninsula of Crimea near Russia, egged on by Napoleon III. Represented new technologies ended in peace of Paris where Russia lost the right to base its navy in Dardanelles and Black Sea=neutral waters. Very bloody, ended alliance between Austria and Russia.
English nurse during Crimean war. Organized a battle field nursing service to care for British sick and wounded. Improved sanitary conditions and pioneered nursing as a profession. Drastically reduced fatality rates from 40% to 5%.
Emancipation of the Serfs
1861 in Russia by Tsar Alexander II, part of the Age of Great Reforms, partially laid groundwork for modern labor force in Russia. Peasants had to redeem land by paying off loans. No revolts that were anticipated changed Russian society.
After revolutions of 1848, policies developed and associated with nation building. Based on realism rather than romantic notions. Term came to mean any policy based on considerations of power alone. Created general climate of modern opinion that valued realism, hard facts, and tough-minded deeds. Used in Italy to unite (Cavour).
English naturalist who popularized theory of evolution and thereby challenged biblical story of creation. Wrote Origin of the Species in 1859, challenge to Judeo-Christian dogma, theories undermined certain liberal, secular beliefs, natural selection, and survival of the fittest. Held that people of color aka ?lower races? were far behind whites.
March 28, 1871, Parisians declared themselves self-governing commune, attempt to form a decentralized state of independent, confederate units run by local citizens. Attempt to take back the city, tried many reforms and created National Guard. Commune in contrast to republic ideas. Stamped out in May 21, nation state showed its muscle in defeating commune.
- process of having some aspects of industrial work done outside factories in individual homes. During industrial revolution in 1870?s through entire history of modern manufacturing. All over Europe, except Britain, showed development of textile, iron and steel industries occurred at the same time.
The Bon Marche
department store in Paris. Rise of these stores gave women new jobs and roles in society, no longer bought only what they needed. Could also buy from mail-order catalogs, rose around 1870.
The ?Scramble for Africa?
1880?s, European military forces started conquering African territory. Race between British, French, Belgians, Portuguese, Italians and Germans. Escalated tensions in Europe and prompted Bismarck to call conference of Berlin in 1884-1885. Europeans divided up Africa across ethnic and geographic lines which were detrimental for Africans.
The Meiji Regime
came to power in 1868 in Japan. All classes high and low shall unite in vigorously promoting the economy and welfare of nation. Directed country?s turn toward modern industry and supported new innovators, changed the face of Japan.
Dutch physician-opened first birth control clinic in 1880?s, specialized in promoting new, German invented diaphragm, wanted to help women in Amsterdam slums who were worn out by numerous pregnancies and whose lives would be improved by limiting fertility. Opposed by the church.
Charles Stewart Parnell
1846-1891) Irish politician whose advocacy of home rule was a thorn in the side of British establishment. Wanted Ireland to have its own parliament, paralyzed British parliament?s conduct of business and gov., destroyed him, didn?t achieve home rule.
liberal politician and prime minister of GB who innovated in popular campaigning and criticized British imperialism. Served 4 nonconsecutive terms between 1868 and 1894. Helped Parnell w/bills on home rule and tenant security.
The Boer War
1899-1902, aka the South African War. War between British and Boers (originally Butch) inhabitants of South Africa for control of the region. Britain eventually won and annexed the area but the cost of money and life was enormous. Prominent citizens now call imperialism an act of barbarism
aka the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, maintained that ritual boxing would protect them from a variety of evils, including bullets. Rebelled in 1900 encourages by Qing ruler, Dowager Empress Tzu hsi, massacred missionaries and Chinese Christians. Put down and Qing dynasty discredited which led to more foreign military occupation and another rebellion in 1911.
German political theorist (1864-1920) said that sheer number of facts involved in policy making would often make decisive action by bureaucrats impossible. A charismatic leader might usurp power because of his ability to act on intuition. Turn-of-the-century thinker challenged entrenched ideas about policymaking, reform and conduct of government.
1844-1900) German philosopher nihilist questioned the ability of traditional science to provide timeless truths. Each individual had the ?the will to power? called for new morality, contracted syphilis and went insane; his policies were reworked by his sister to appeal to militarists and anti-Semites, mixed legacy.
Women?s Social and Political Union (WSPU)
1903, founded by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters, belief women would accomplish nothing unless they threatened men?s property. Held parades in English cities, began a campaign of violence to gain the right to vote outraged men and were arrested for disturbing peace went on hunger strikes in prison. Like striking workers and anarchists. Brought suffrage to forefront and added to tensions of urban life.
-Jewish captain in the French Army charged w/spying for Germany in 1894. Military produced evidence to gain Dreyfus?s conviction and exile to the harsh fortress on Devil?s Island. Newspaper article by Emile Zola listed who was really guilty in 1898. Article called for enlightenment and induced riots. Eventually pardoned in 1899. Made anti-Semitism a standard tool of politics by showing the effectiveness of hate-filled slogans in shaping public opinion.
1914, German strategy in WWI that called for attacks on 2 fronts: first French to the west then turning east to attack Russia named after author, Alfred Von Schlieffen. Former chief of general staff the great powers were not prepared.
May 1915, British passenger ship that was sunk by German U-boat. Killed 1,198 people, including 124 Americans. Wilson did not give in so Germany called off unrestricted warfare.
1916, French town, fortress attacked by Germans. Million shells fired great loss of soldiers on both sides. French held and Russia helped the allies at Verdun by driving against Germany. Supposed to crush French moral by Germans. Millions of men dyeing, people ask what is this all about?
November 1917, overthrow of Russia?s provisional government by V.O. Lenin and his Bolshevik forces. Didn?t get plurality so took over whole government. Observed Marxist doctrine, limited candidates chosen to members of Communist Party, led to civil war in Russia between whites and reds. Beginning of totalitarianism one party rule, Lenin promises to remove Russia from war.
Bolshevik commissar of war built a highly disciplined army by ending democratic procedures, such as the election of officers. Introduced policy of war communism with Lenin, where urban workers and troops would seize grain from peasants to feed civil war army and workforce. Discredited by Stalin as unpatriotic internationalist unwilling to concentrate on modernizing Soviet Union. Eventually exiled.
parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the monarchy. Set dangerous precedent: relied on street violence, paramilitary groups and protests instead of parliaments to solve political problems.
War Guilt Clause
part of the treaty of Versailles (1919-1920¬) that assigned blame for WWI to Germany. Also allowed victors to collect reparations from Germany rather than Austria. ( Article 231 interpreted) Made Germans feel like outcasts in the community of nations.
group of German artists named after idea of craft association, Bauhutte, created streamlined office buildings and designed functional furniture and utensils. Inspired by untainted East Asia and Africa, aim of art was not to decorate their lives but to organize it.
India, 1929, acts of deliberately but peacefully breaking the law. A tactic used by Mohandas Gandhi in India and earlier by British suffragists to protest oppression and obtain political change.
1930?s-USSR series of attacks on citizens of the USSR accused of being ?wreckers? or saboteurs of communism, state violence in the form of widespread arrests, imprisonments in labor camps and executions to rid society, part of achieving communist democracy.
The Enabling Act
1933, German legislation suspending constitutional government for 4 years in order to meet the crisis in the Germany economy and allowed Nazi laws to take effect without parliamentary approval. Middle class Germans approved it as a way to advance the creation of the ?people?s community?=like-minded racially pure Germans. Organizations had lots of power.
1933, German legislation that codified anti-Semitism. Enacted by the Nazi?s, deprived Jewish Germans of their citizenship and imposed many other hardships on them like prohibiting marriage between Jews and non-Jews. Limited many ?outcast? groups from certain freedoms and increased Nazi power.
Social Security Act
1935, U.S. enacted by FDR?s administration. Set up a fund to which employers and employees contributed money, provided retirement benefits for workers, unemployment insurance, and payments to dependent mothers, their children and people with disabling physical conditions. Advanced the trend toward the welfare state.
The Ethiopian War
1935, Ethiopia invaded by Mussolini of Italy, was one of the few African states not overwhelmed by European imperialism. Wanted to demonstrate regimes youth and vigor. Ethiopians resisted by capital Addis Ababa fell in the spring 1936. Fall of Ethiopia and Italy?s boastful assertions of African racial inferiority strengthen the resolve of African nationalist. With world?s focus on Ethiopia campaign, Hitler sent his troops to the Rhineland bordering France.
1892-1975, right-wing military leader who successfully overthrew the democratic republic in Spain and instituted a repressive dictatorship n 1936. Became a totalitarian ruler.
literally means ?living space,? land that Hitler proposed to conquer so that true Aryans might have sufficient space to live their noble lives while inferior Slavic peoples and Bolsheviks would be moved to Siberia or would serve as slaves.
March 1947, united state?s policy to limit communism after WWII by countering political crises with economic and military aid, reaction to the communist threat in Greece, eventually declared a cease-fire and ended soviet conquest
1945 in Nuremberg, Germany. ?De-notification,? used Nazi?s own documents to reveal a horrifying panorama of crimes by Nazi leaders. Hosted by Allies, death sentences for 12/24 defendants and prison terms to the rest. Introduced today?s notion of prosecution for crimes against humanity. Conclusions helped to draft genocide convention of 1948.
U.S. senator foreseeing a reelection struggle. To earn following, waned a great conspiracy to overthrow U.S. Everyone called to testify if they had communist ties. Oversaw book burnings and had books taken off shelves. Senate voted to censure McCarthy in 1954 but assault on freedom was devastating and anticommunism became focus.
The Schuman Plan
Named after Robert Schuman, French foreign minister from 1948-53, created the European coal and steel community, instituted after the war to share resources among France, West Germany and other nations. Schuman foresaw long term benefits including lasting peace and unification of Europe. Blueprint for today?s European Union.
Ho Chi Minh
Indochina nationalist, preached both nationalism and socialism and built a powerful organization, the Viet Minh to fight colonial rule. Advocated redistribution of land held by big landowners. Ultimately defeated French Army in battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Viet Minh with Ho Chi as president ruled in North Vietnam.
Simone de Beauvior
1949, The Second Sex, author, a globally influential work that created an interpretation of women?s age-old inferior status from existentialist philosophy. Said women just accepted their secondary role and lived passively. Seen to promote the revival of human values.
first prime minister of the republic of India from 1947-1964. Led during India?s first years of freedom from British rule. Nehru and friends were thought to be too ?feminine? to be reliable in an age of cold war heroes; he chose to maintain India as a neutral country.
1962-1965, Catholic council held to modernize some aspects of church teachings (such as condemnations of Jews), to update liturgy and to promote cooperation among the faiths (i.e. ecumenism). Convened by Pope John XXIII, commitment to ?re-Christianizing? the world.
1968, 21 year old Czech student that burned himself alive protesting the crushing of the Prague Spring by Russian tanks. People were arrested in 1989 for commemorating his death. Showed the role of students in the protests, they were finally taking a stand
late 1960s, German for Eastern Policy, chancellor of the Federal Republic, Will Brandt?s détente policy. West Germany sought better economic relations with communist countries of Eastern Europe. Gave business leaders of West Germany what they wanted.
1968, Vietnamese New Year. Vietcong and North Vietnamese attacked more than 100 South Vietnamese towns and American bases and had high casualties. Led many to conclude war might be unwinnable and gave momentum to anti-war movement around the world which caused many students to protest.
Early 1960?s, American artist from Pittsburgh, parodied modern commercialism. Used depictions of women to show how they were used to sell everything mass culture had to offer
Prime minister of Britain from 1979-1990, set a new tone for British politics by promoting neoliberal economic policies and criticizing poor people, union members, and racial minorities as worthless, even harmful citizens.
key form of dissident activity across the soviet bloc; individuals reproduced uncensored publications by hand and passed them from reader to reader, this building a foundation for the successful resistance of the 1980s.
1990- won presidency of Serbia. Promoted seb control as replacement for communism. Serb leader of post-communist Yugoslavia; he was tried for crimes against humanity in the ethnic cleansing that accompanied the dissolution of Yugoslav state. In 2003, followers assassinated new Serbian president.
the mass murder-genocide-of people according to ethnicity or nationality, beginning with the post-world war I elimination of minorities in eastern and central Eruope and continuing with the rape and murders that resulted from the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.
the common currency accepted by twelve members of the European Union. It went into effect gradually, used first in business transactions in 1999 and entering public circulation in 2002.
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