PAGE PAGE 1 Chapter Ten - Aggression Direct Provocation Provocation Actions by others that tend to trigger aggression in the recipient, often cuz they are perceived as stemming from malicious intent One of the strongest causes of human aggression We tend to reciprocate, returning as much aggression as we have received or more if we are certain that the other person meant to harm us What kinds of provocation produce the strongest push toward aggression? 1) Condescension( expressions of arrogance or disdain on the part of others Is powerful 2) Harsh & unjustified criticism (especially criticism that attacks us rather than our behavior) When exposed to it most ppl find it hard to avoid getting angry & retaliating 3) Teasing( provoking statements that call attention to the target?s flaws & imperfections May be playful in nature Humorous remarks, humorous nicknames, hurtful comments Research- more individuals attribute teasing to hostile motives- a desire to embarrass or annoy them?the more likely they are to respond aggressively Cultural differences Individualists cultures (USA) Strongly concerned w/ establishing a sense of uniqueness and a positive public image Study: More likely to perceive teasing as hostile (respond more negatively) Collectivist cultures (Asians)- less concerned w/ uniqueness, more concerned well w/ others & being apart of the larger group study: attribute less hostility to teasing (more + reactions to teasing) Heightened Arousal: Emotion, Cognition, and Aggression under some conditions, heightened arousal ( w/ever the source) can enhance aggression in response to provocation, frustrations, or other factors experiments participation in some games or types of music has been found to increase subsequent aggression cuz of excitation transfer theory excitation transfer theory suggests that (psychological) arousal occurring in one situation can persist & intensify emotional reactions emotional reactions in later unrelated circumstances ex. Arousal by a near miss in traffic can intensify feelings of annoyance stemming from delays at an airport security gate result, become enraged rather than mildly irritated suggests effects are most likely to occur when ppl involved are relatively unaware of the presence or residual arousal a common occurrence cuz small elevations in arousal are hard to notice suggests such effects are likely to occur when ppl involved recognize their residual arousal but attribute it to events occurring in the present situation ex. Airport: anger intensified if you recognize your feelings of arousal but attribute them to the old man?s actions rather then the driver who nearly cut you off ( arousal & irritation ( increased aggression attribute to delay @ gate near miss ( heightened arousal ( residual arousal ( frustration in traffic (still persists at (delay at gate) security gate) (arousal & irritation ( aggression not increased attributed to near miss in traffic The Effects of Sexually Aggressive Song Lyrics effects of long term exposure to aggressive lyrics on reg. basis parallel effects of exposure to violent TV/ videogames study: M&F listen to neutral lyrics or misogynous lyrics (express neg. attitude to W & sex. Aggression towards them )/ men hating lyrics completed word task to measure extent lyrics stimulated aggressive thoughts/ ideas asked to help w/ experiment about temp & intellectual performance different person had to keep arm in cold H2O (pain) & asked how long treatment should B longer time suggested= greater aggression against person (told M or F) Result: Men exposed to sex aggressive songs (misogynous)( More aggressive toward a female victim than men exposed to neutral songs or men-hating lyrics women?vice versa thus sexually aggressive lyrics found in many popular songs may, like violent images in films/movies, contribute to increased aggression among ppl exposed to them Cultural Factors in Aggression: ?Cultures of Honor? and Sexual Jealousy aggression is often triggered by the words or deeds of other ppl or from cultural factors cultures of honor cultures in which there are strong norms indicating that aggression is an appropriate response to insults to one?s honor ex. Old western films or Asian films between warriors how did such norms develop? May be traced to some geographical areas, wealth was once concentrated mainly in asserts that could readily be stole (cattle, slaves) Became important for some to demonstrate they would not tolerate such thefts or any other affront to their offer Norms condoning violence in response to insults to one?s honor emerged & were widely accepted. White baseball players were more likely to hit batters in situations in which their honor has been insulted (may have hit a home run etc) Impact is especially apparent w/ respect to sexual jealousy Sexual jealousy: one key effect of concern w/ one honor?s In cultures sexual infidelity by women is viewed especially threatening to male honor Can result in drastic responses?severe punishment for M & F Even in cultures of honor where infidelity is not condoned Crimes of passion are condoned to a degree Sexual infidelity by a lover is viewed as the ultimate insult to the males honor Thus crimes of passion almost seem required Thus in some cultures jealousy will be a powerful determinant of aggression Code of male honor is strongest in Latin America and in southern part of USA Thus situations that induce jealousy would be expected to produce stronger aggressive reactions by jealous ppl in those cultures than others Ppl in honor oriented cultures should tend to be more accepting of such aggression than ppl in other cultures Study: Participants from the southern USA or Hispanic rated a woman who responded to mistreatment by her fiancÚ w/ contrition ( blaming herself) more favorably than a woman who responded w/ anger or assertiveness Participants from northern USA showed opposite pattern Show powerful impact of honor on reactions to sexual jealousy Jealousy is a powerful cause of aggression & violence stemming from it ?or from other factors that threaten a man?s honor- are excused or condoned, at least to a degree in cultures of honor. Thus cultural factors play a vital role in both the occurrence of aggression and how it is perceived or evaluated Aggression in Ongoing Relationships: Bullying and Aggression at Work (pgs. 364-368) Bullying A form of behavior in which 1 individual is chosen as the target of repeated aggression by 1 or more others; The target person (the victim) generally has less power than those who engage in aggression (the bullies) 50% of ppl in prison are exposed to 1 or + episodes of bullying each week why do ppl engage in bullying? No simple answer but 2 key motives: The motive to hold power over others The motive to be part of a group that is ?tough? & therefore high in status Feeling depressed is another cause of bullying- it makes the bully feel better Gender differences Boys- desire to gain power & be apart of powerful groups were related to bullying Feeling depressed was not Girls- desire to gain power & be apart of powerful groups & feeling depressed Thus aggressing against someone who can?t retaliate is one technique of countering the negative feeling of depression The characteristics of Bullies & victims Many ppl who are bullies in one context become a victim in other situations & vice versa 3 combos: ppl who are always bullies, ppl who are always victims, and bully-victims what makes ppl become bullies in the 1st place? 1) bullies tend to believe that others act the way they do intentionally or cuz of lasting characteristics victims tend to perceive others as acting as they do at least in part cuz they are responding to external events of conditions, including how others have treated them bullies & bully-victims tend to be lower in self esteem than other ppl( thus tend to aggress toward others to build up self image bullies tend to adopt a ruthless, manipulative approach to life & to dealing w/ other ppl believe others are not to be trusted, thus feel justified to break their word & take unfair advantage of others bullies & bully-victims believe the best way to respond to bullying is w/ aggression believe more than others that being highly aggressive will bring them more respect reducing the occurrence of bullying: some positive steps 1) bulling must be seen as a serious problem by all involved parties teachers, parents, students, prisoners, employees etc 2) if bullying occurs, ppl in authority draw attention to it and take an unequivocal approach against it 3) potential victims must be provided w/ direct means for dealing w/ bullying must be told what to do & who to see when bullying occurs 4) outside help is often useful in identifying the cause of bullying and in devising programs to reduce it workplace aggression: harming others at work workplace violence 1) majority of violence occurring in work settings is preformed by outsiders( ppl who don?t work there but enter a workplace to commit robberies/ other type of crime 2) recent surveys indicate that threats of physical harm or actual harm in work settings are rare thus violence is relatively rare & is not a major problem that media makes it seem to be workplace aggression( any form of behavior through which individuals seek to harm other in their workplace more common than work place violence largely covert (hidden) rather than overt in nature cuz of effect-danger ratio principle suggesting that in situations in which they interact frequently w/ potential victims, most ppl try- when engaging in aggression- to maximize the harm they produce while minimizing the danger of retaliation thus try to do this in subtle ways to victim doesn?t know who caused the harm or if harm is result of actions of someone else or impersonal factors (ex. Bad luck) what forms of aggression so ppl use in workplace 3 types of expressions of hostility- behaviors that are primarily verbal or symbolic in nature obstructionism- behaviors designed to impede the target?s performance ex. Don?t return phone calls incivility- low-intensity deviant behavior w/ ambiguous intent to harm target in violation of workplace norms for mutual respect ex. Sending rude email, excluding 1 from meeting Overt aggression- behaviors that have typically been included under ?workplace violence? Ex. Physical assault, theft etc Obstructionism & incivility more feq. Cuz of effect-danger principle Causes of workplace aggression Unfairness Causes one to feel anger & resentment & try to even the score by harming others Influenced by general society norms concerning the acceptability of such behavior Acceptance of violence in surrounding communities paves way for similar behavior inside organization Changes that have occurred recently in workplaces; reductions of staff, unexpected layoffs, increased use of PT employees Generate feelings of insecurity among regular employees, fear for job Since this has been increasing, workplace aggression may be increasing Abusive supervision: bosses who make workplaces unbearable 10% of employees report are currently experiencing, 30% say have experienced thus not rare why do they do it? Not seeking power like bullies Heap abuse on everyone May do it to vent own frustrations Mainly for sheer pleasure of exercising their power and the gains in self-esteem it gives them Effects: Damages employees, entire organization May reduce the willingness of employees to help one another at work Thus common and makes going to work difficult for many
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