The tendency to agree rather than disagree with items on questionnaires.
Refers to collectivism on the individual level. On the cultural level, collectivism refers to a how a culture functions. This term refers to how individuals may act in accordance with collectivistic cultural frameworks.
A technique of translating research protocols that involves taking the protocol as it was developed in one language, translating it into the target language, and having someone else translate it back to the original. If this version is the same as the original, they are generally considered equivalent. If not, the procedure is repeated until the this version is the same as the original.
Variables that operationalize aspects of culture that researchers believe produce differences in psychological variables. These variables are actually measured in unpackaging studies.
A study that compares two or more cultures on some psychological variable of interest, often with the hypothesis that one culture will have significantly higher scores on the variable than other cultures.
cultural attribution fallacies
A mistaken interpretation in cross-cultural comparison studies. These occur when researchers infer that something cultural produced that differences they observed in their study, despite the fact that they may not be empirically justified in doing so because they did not actually measure those cultural factors.
Studies that use rich, complex, and in-depth descriptions of cultures and cultural differences to predict and test for differences in a psychological variable.
The concept underlying the procedure of back translation that involves eliminating any culture-specific concepts of the original language or translating them equivalently to the target language.
A study in which countries or cultures, not individuals, are the unit of analysis.
A state or condition of similarity in conceptual meaning and empirical method between cultures that allows comparisons to be meaningful.
Studies in which researchers create conditions to establish cause-effect relationships. Participants are generally assigned randomly to participate in the conditions, and researchers then compare results across conditions.
extreme response bias
The tendency to use the ends of a scale regardless of item content.
A statistical technique that allows researches to identify groups of items on a questionnaire. The grouped items are thought to represent mental constructs underlying the responses to the items.
Refers to individualism on the individual level. On the cultural level, individualism refers to how a culture functions. This refers to how individuals may act in accordance with individualistic cultural frameworks.
individual-level measures of culture
Measures that assess psychological dimensions related to meaningful dimensions of cultural variability and that are completed by individuals. They are often used to ensure that samples in different cultures actually harbor the cultural characteristics thought to differentiate them. They are often used as context variables.
The degree to which different items in a questionnaire are related to each other, and give consistent responses.
The semantic equivalence between protocols (instruments, instructions, questionnaires, etc.) used in cross-cultural comparison studies.
Studies that attempt to measure an aspect of culture theoretically hypothesized to produce cultural differences and then empirically link the measured aspect of culture with the dependent variable of interest.
The degree to which measures used to collect data in different cultures are equally valid and reliable.
The ways researchers conceptually define a variable and measure it.
Studies that involve experimentally manipulating the mindsets of participants and measuring the resulting changes in behavior.
The degree to which the procedures used to collect data in different cultures are equivalent to each other.
The degree to which different measures used in a cross-cultural comparison study are statistically equivalent in the cultures being compared--that is, whether the measures are equally valid and reliable in all cultures studied.
The degree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is consistent.
A systematic tendency to respond in certain ways to items or scales.
reference group effect
The idea that people make implicit social comparisons with others when making ratings on scales. That is, people's ratings will be influenced by the implicit comparisons they make between themselves and others, and these influences may make comparing responses across cultures difficult.
The degree to which different samples in different cultures are equivalent to each other.
socially desirable responding
Tendencies to give answers on questionnaires that make oneself look good.
The degree to which a measure used in a cross-cultural study produces the same factor analysis results in the different cultures being compared.
The degree to which a theory or set of hypotheses being compared across cultures are equivalent--that is, whether they have the same meaning and relevance in all the cultures being compared.
Studies that unpackage the contents of the global, unspecific concept of culture into specific, measurable psychological constructs and examine their contribution to cultural differences.
The degree to which a finding, measurement, or statistic is accurate, or represents what is supposed to.
The process of changing one's understanding of the world to accommodate ideas that conflict with existing concepts.
A style of attachment in which children are uncertain in their response to their mothers, going back and forth between seeking and shunting her attention. These mothers have been characterized as insensitive and less involved.
The belief that all things, including inanimate objects, are alive.
The process of fitting new ideas into a preexisting understanding of the world.
The special bond that develops between the infant and his or her primary caregiver. The quality of attachment has lifelong effects on our relationships with loved ones.
A style of attachment in which chilren shun their mothers, who are suspected of being intrusive and overstimulating.
The tendency to focus on a single aspect of a problem
A speciality in psychology that studies how thinking skills develop over time. The major theory of cognitive development is that of Piaget.
An awareness that physical quantities remain the same even when they change shape ore appearance.
The second stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, emphasizing conformity to rules that are defined by others' approval or society's rules.
A type of temperament that is characterized by an intense, irregular, withdrawing style that is generally marked by negative moods.
A type of temperament that is definedd by a very regular, adaptable, mildly intense style of behavior that is positive and responsive.
The inability to step into another's shoes and understand the other person's point of view.
goodness of fit
The interaction of a child's temperament with that of the parents, considered a key to the development of personality.
great divide theory
Theory of cognitive development that suggest that the thought of Westerners is superior to that of people that live in primitive societies.
The inability to imagine "undoing" a process.
The third stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, emphasizing moral reasoning on the basis of individual principles and conscience.
The first stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, emphasizing compliance with rules to avoid punishment and gain rewards.
A style of attachment in which infants are described as warm and responsive to their caregivers.
A type of temperament in which infants need time to make transitions in activity and experiences. Though they may withdraw initially or respond negatively, given time and support they will adapt and react positively.
Qualities of responsiveness to the environment that exist from birth to evoke different reactions from people in the baby's world. This is generally considered to be biologically based style of interacting with the world.
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