a large, diverse group of microscopic organisms that exist as single cells or as clusters.
Microorganisms are distinct from animals and plants because...
Microorganisms are cells that can live alone in nature rather than just being part of a multi-cellular organism.
DISEASES. Many of which were believed to have behavioral or genetic components involving microbes.
Microbes can be ______ resistant _______....
Microbes can be antibiotic resistant organisms as well as emerging pathogens.
*< 1% of microbes cause disease. Many enhance our well being.
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
began making and using simple microscopes.
by the 19th century, tiny organisms were classified as microorganisms
the Taxonomic System was developed by...
Carlous Linnaeus to name plants and animals by the grouping of similar organisms together.
Fungi are (Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes) and tell me about them
Eukaryotes: they HAVE a cell wall, they are single cells and are filamentous. obtain nutrients by breaking down organic material (good for ecosystem) and are pathogens according to plants. Composed of Molds and Yeasts.
they have hyphae
they reproduce sexually, as well as asexually by spores
reproduce asexually by budding
SOME produce sexual spores
contain AT LEAST one nucleus and NO cell wall
reproduce sexually and asexually
live freely in H2O
locomotion via pseudopodia, cilia and flagella
Numerous, SHORT, hairlike protrusions
long, whiplike and fewer than cilia.
on prokaryotes it moves like the elbow (can rotate 360*)
can be unicellular or multi-cellular.
Photosynthesis: live near the surface of fresh or salt water
simple reproductive structures
MUOY IMPORTANTE to global ecology.
*catagorized by pigment, storage products and cell wall comp.
Bacteria and Archaea are (P or E?) (uni or multi?) (nucleus?) (found?) (reproduce?)
have no nucleus
found anywhere w/ lots of moisture, some even live in extreme environments
Tell me about the Golden Age of Microbiology
asexual reprod, sexual reprod and nonliving matter.
Aristotle: nonliving matter theory. accepted for over 1900 years.
decaying meat kept isolated, maggots never grew
meat exposed to flies, infested.
Scientists began to doubt Aristotle's theory
scientists still believed microbes could spontaneously generate, but not animals.
Experimented w/ beef and gravy infusions of plant material to reinforce idea. He boiled broth and sealed flask (killing microorganisms). Microbes grew so true!
concluded Needham failed to heat properly or had not sealed tightly. Proved spontaneous generation does not occur
Pasteur's Experiments (1861)
tried to find out what caused fermentation. Developed "Germ Theory of Disease" stating that microorganisms are responsible for disease.
studied causative agents for disease (Anthrax). Responsible for simple staining techniques, first photomicrograph of bacteria, techniques for estimating CFU/ml, use of steam to sterilize media, use of petri dishes.
suspected causative agent found in every case of the dz and be absent from healthy hosts.
Agent must be isolated and grown outside host.
When agent introduced to healthy host, host must get dz
Same agent must be re-isolated from now dz experimental host
A group of observations leads scientist to ask ? about phenomenon
Scientist generates hypothesis
Scientist designs and conducts experiment to test hypothesis
Based on observed results of experiment, scientist accepts, rejects, or modifies hypothesis
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