CHAPTER 14 Decision Making: Relevant Costs and Benefits ANSWERS to Review Questions The six steps in the decision-making process are as follows: Clarify the decision Specify the criterion Identify the alternatives Develop a decision model Collect the data Select an alternative The managerial accountant?s role in the decision-making process is to participate as a proactive member of the management team, and, in particular, to provide information relevant to the decision. A quantitative analysis is expressed in numerical terms. A qualitative analysis focuses on the factors in a decision problem that cannot be expressed effectively in numerical terms. A decision model is a simplified representation of the choice problem. Unnecessary details are stripped away, and the most important elements of the problem are highlighted. The result of a quantitative analysis is that one alternative is preferred over the next-best alternative by some numerical amount, such as profit. The amount by which the best alternative dominates the second-best alternative establishes a ?price? on the sum total of the qualitative characteristics that might favor the second-best alternative. Suppose, for example, that a hospital?s board of directors is considering establishing an outpatient clinic in one of the two suburban communities. The quantitative analysis of the decision suggests that site A will be more cost effective for the clinic than site B. Assume that the annual cost of running the clinic at site A will be $50,000 less than the annual cost of running the clinic at site B. Now suppose that the board of directors feels that various qualitative considerations indicate that it would be preferable to locate the clinic at site B. For example, site B might be in an economically depressed area, where it is important to bring better-quality health care to the community. Now the board of directors can put a price on these qualitative advantages to locating the clinic at site B. If the board of directors believes that the qualitative benefits at site B outweigh the $50,000 quantitative advantage at site A, then they should locate the clinic at site B. Relevant information is pertinent to a decision problem. Accurate information is precise. Timely information is available to the decision maker in time to make the decision. Objective information need not be relevant or accurate. For example, several people may agree that the interest rate in the coming year in a local community will be 10 percent. However, this information may not be accurate, since that prediction may prove to be wrong. Moreover, information about the interest rate may not be pertinent to a decision about where to locate a new branch bank within the community. Two important criteria that must be satisfied in order for information to be relevant are as follows: Relevant cost or benefit information must involve a future event. In other words, the information must have a bearing on the future. Relevant information must involve costs or benefits that differ among the alternatives. Costs or benefits that are the same across all of the available alternatives have no bearing on the decision. The book value of an asset is its acquisition cost less its accumulated depreciation. The book value is not a relevant cost because it is a sunk cost. It occurred in the past and has no bearing on the future. The book value of inventory, like the book value of any asset, is not a relevant cost. The inventory?s book value is based on its acquisition cost or its production cost and is, therefore, a sunk cost. It has no bearing on any future course of action. Managers sometimes exhibit a behavioral tendency to inappropriately consider a sunk cost in making a decision, because they believe that their original decision to incur the sunk cost, such as when an asset is acquired, will appear to have been a bad decision if the manager subsequently disposes of the asset. This perceived need by managers for their past decisions to appear to have been good ones may result in their inappropriate emphasis on sunk costs in making a decision. An example of an irrelevant future cost is a cost that will occur in the future but does not differ among the alternatives. For example, a bank may be considering several sites for the location of a new branch office. If the cost of hiring an architect to design the new building will not differ among the alternatives, it is an irrelevant future cost. An opportunity cost is the potential benefit given up when the choice of one action precludes a different action. For example, one opportunity cost associated with getting a college education is the student?s forgone wages from a job that might have been held during the educational period. People often exhibit a behavioral tendency to ignore or downplay the importance of opportunity costs in making a decision. Since an opportunity cost often is not a cash flow, people tend to think it is less important than costs that are represented by cash flows. This behavioral tendency can result in faulty decision making. If a firm has excess production capacity, there is no opportunity cost to the acceptance of a special order. On the other hand, if the firm is already at capacity and there is no excess production capacity, the opportunity cost associated with accepting a special order involves the contribution margin from the products that would have been manufactured with the resources devoted to the special order. In a differential-cost analysis, the decision maker determines the difference in each cost or revenue item that will occur under each of the alternatives under consideration. Then the decision maker focuses on the differences in the costs and revenues in making the decision. In making a decision about adding or dropping a product line, the decision maker should consider the avoidable expenses if the product line is not carried as well as the impact of the decision to add or drop the product line on the firm?s other operations. A joint production process is one in which the processing of a common input results in two or more distinct products known as joint products. A special decision that commonly arises in the context of the joint production process is the decision whether or not to process further one of the joint products into a different product. The proper approach for making this type of decision is to compare the incremental benefits from further processing with the incremental costs. The allocated joint processing costs are irrelevant when making a decision as to whether a joint product should be sold at the split-off point or processed further. The total joint cost will not change as a result of the decision to process further, and therefore it is irrelevant to the decision. The proper approach to making a production decision when limited resources are involved is to maximize production of the product that has the highest contribution margin per unit of scarce resource. When two or more resources are limited, the technique of linear programming may be appropriate. The contribution margin per unit of scarce resource is a product?s unit contribution margin divided by the number of units of the scarce resource required to produce one unit of the product. For example, if a product?s contribution margin per unit is $5 and it requires two hours of labor to produce one unit, the contribution margin per direct-labor hour is $2.50. Sensitivity analysis may be used to cope with uncertainty in decision making by analyzing how sensitive a decision problem is to the estimates of certain parameters. One important question that can be answered is: How much can a particular parameter estimate change before the optimal decision changes? There is an important link between decision making and managerial performance evaluation, because managers typically make decisions that maximize their perceived performance evaluations and rewards. If we want managers to make optimal decisions by properly evaluating the relevant cost and benefits, then the performance evaluation system and reward structure must be consistent with that goal. Four potential pitfalls in decision making that represent common errors are the following: Paying too much attention to sunk costs. Basing the analysis on unitized fixed costs rather than total fixed costs. Using unitized fixed costs is dangerous because the fixed cost per unit changes as activity changes. Not identifying avoidable costs. In some kinds of decisions, it is important to identify the avoidable costs. It is critical that the decision maker make a distinction between the amount of the fixed costs that will be avoided and the amount that may have been arbitrarily allocated to a particular cost object. Overlooking opportunity costs or treating them as less important than out-of-pocket costs. In a decision analysis, it is important to pay special attention to identifying and including opportunity costs. Unitized fixed costs can cause errors in decision making because the fixed cost per unit changes as the activity measure changes. For this reason, it is better to include fixed costs in the analysis in their total amounts. Sunk costs are irrelevant in decision making because they have already occurred in the past and will not change under any future, alternative course of action. Two examples of sunk costs are the book value of equipment and the book value of inventory on hand. This remark fails to recognize the fact that the identification of relevant information depends on the decision. Data that are relevant to one decision may be irrelevant to another one. Therefore, it would be impossible for the managerial-accounting system to produce only information that is relevant to all decisions. The concepts underlying a relevant-cost analysis remain valid both in an advanced manufacturing environment and in a situation where activity-based costing is used. However, when an ABC system is used, the decision maker typically is able to more accurately determine the relevant costs than when a traditional, volume-based costing system is used. Five ways to relax a bottleneck constraint are as follows: Working overtime at the bottleneck operation. Retraining employees and shifting them to the bottleneck. Eliminating any non-value-added activities at the bottleneck operation. Outsourcing (subcontracting) all or part of the bottleneck operation. Investing in additional production equipment and employing parallel processing, in which multiple product units undergo the same production operation simultaneously. Solutions to exercises Exercise 14-29 (25 minutes) Students? answers to this exercise will vary widely. The following illustration is set in a small city in central New York. Residents of an outlying suburb of the city complained that it took too long for ambulances and fire engines to reach their area when emergencies occurred. They demanded that the city build a satellite fire and rescue station in their neighborhood. The steps in the city?s decision-making process are summarized as follows: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 1. Clarify the decision problem: The first step was to clarify the problem. Was the perceived slow response time real or merely a perception by the residents of the neighborhood? What was the average response time for emergency vehicles to the area? Were proper procedures being followed? What was the condition of the roads, bridges, and traffic lights on the route to the neighborhood in question? The result of this inquiry was a realization that the emergency response time to the suburb was slower than that experienced by the rest of the city, although it was still within state guidelines. Moreover, procedures were being followed properly by emergency personnel, and the traffic system was adequate for emergency responses. The conclusion of the problem clarification stage was that the neighborhood was simply too far from the city?s fire and rescue station to respond as quickly as the residents of the neighborhood would have liked. Specify the criterion: The City Council decided that some type of action was warranted. They specified that the city engineer should find a way to cut response time to the neighborhood by five minutes without incurring unacceptable costs. Identify the alternatives: The city engineer identified the following alternatives: Build a satellite fire and rescue station on the west end of the affected neighborhood. Station two fire trucks and an ambulance, along with the requisite personnel, in the parking lot of a shopping center in the suburb. Develop a decision model: The decision model consisted of a computer program that would simulate emergency response times and costs under each of the two alternatives. exercise 14-29 (continued) Collect the data: The data needed for the decision model included employee compensation data, acquisition and maintenance costs for a satellite station, and the projected costs of operating the new station. QUALITATIVE CONSIDERATIONS The computer model indicated that either alternative would satisfy the criterion of reducing emergency response times by five minutes, and that the positioning of emergency vehicles at the shopping center would be less expensive. Nevertheless, the City Council felt that this solution would be perceived by the residents of the neighborhood as a temporary, stopgap measure that did not really address their needs. Make a decision: The City Council decided to build a satellite fire and rescue station. Although this alternative was somewhat more expensive, the Council felt that the qualitative considerations outweighed the cost advantage of the other alternative. Exercise 14-30 (20 minutes) Flight Route Decision Revenues and Costs Under Two Alternatives (a) Nonstop Route* (b) With Stop In San Francisco* (c) Differential Amount? Passenger revenue $240,000 $258,000 $(18,000 ) Landing fee in San Francisco -0- (5,000 ) 5,000 Use of airport gate facilities -0- (3,000 ) 3,000 Flight crew cost (2,000 ) (2,500 ) 500 Fuel (21,000 ) (24,000 ) 3,000 Meals and services ?? (4,000 ) ?? (4,600 ) ??? 600 Total revenue less costs $213,000 $218,900 $ (5,900 ) *In columns (a) and (b), parentheses denote costs, and numbers without parentheses are revenues. ?In column (c), parentheses denote differential items favoring option (b). Exercise 14-31 (15 minutes) 1. The owner?s reasoning probably reflects the following calculation: Savings in annual operating expenses if old pizza oven is replaced $2,600 Write-off of old oven?s remaining book value ($9,000 ÷ 3) (3,000 ) ?Loss? associated with replacement $ (400 ) 2. The owner?s analysis is flawed, because the book value of the old pizza oven is a sunk cost. It should not enter into the equipment replacement decision. 3. Correct analysis: Savings in annual operating expenses if old pizza oven is replaced $2,600 Acquisition cost of new oven, which will be operable for one year (1,900 ) Net benefit from replacing old pizza oven $ 700 Exercise 14-32 (15 minutes) Dear (president?s name): We recommend against processing banolide into kitrocide. The incremental cost of further processing, $8,100, exceeds the incremental revenue, $7,500. This $7,500 incremental revenue is the difference between the sales value of the kitrocide, $10,000, and the sales value of the banolide, $2,500. We would also like to point out that the cost of the joint process, $19,000, and the allocation of that cost to the joint products is irrelevant to the decision. Sincerely, I.M. Student Partner, Student Consulting Associates Exercise 14-33 (15 minutes) The owner?s analysis incorrectly includes the following allocated costs that will be incurred regardless of whether the ice cream counter is operated: Utilities $2,900 Depreciation of building 4,000 Deli manager?s salary ?3,000 Total $9,900 It is possible that closing the ice cream counter might save a portion of the utility cost, but that is doubtful. A better analysis follows: Sales $45,000 Less: Cost of food ?20,000 Gross profit 25,000 Less: Operating expenses Wages of counter personnel $12,000 Paper products 4,000 Depreciation of counter equipment and furnishings* ??2,500 Total ?18,500 Profit on ice cream counter $ 6,500 *Depreciation on the counter equipment and furnishings is included because it is traceable to the ice cream operation and is an expense in the determination of income. If a cash-flow analysis is desired, this noncash expense should be excluded. EXERCISE 14-34 (30 MINUTES) Answers will vary depending on the company and activity chosen. There are many trade-offs involved in outsourcing decisions, including the incremental savings or cost from outsourcing, quality of the service, reliability of the supplier, morale effects if outsourcing results in closing a department, and so forth. Exercise 14-35 (15 minutes) 1. Relevant data: Current sales value for unmodified parts $?9,000 Sales value for modified parts 22,300 Modification costs 12,000 Irrelevant data: Current book value of inventory 21,000 This is a sunk cost. It will not affect any future course of action. 2. There are two alternatives for disposing of the obsolete parts: (a) sell in unmodified condition or (b) modify and then sell. (a) Benefit if parts are sold without modification $?9,000 (b) Sales value for modified parts $22,300 Cost of modification ?12,000 Net benefit if parts are sold after being modified $10,300 Conclusion: Modify the parts and then sell them. Exercise 14-36 (15 minutes) 1. The relevant cost of the theolite to be used in producing the special order is the 14,500p sales value that the company will forgo if it uses the chemical. This is an example of an opportunity cost. p denotes Argentina?s peso. 2. (a) 14,500p sales value: Discussed in requirement (1). (b) 16,000p book value (8,000 kilograms ( 2p per kilogram): Irrelevant, since the book value is a sunk cost. (c) 19,200p current purchase cost (8,000 kilograms ( 2.40p per kilogram): Irrelevant, since the company will not be buying any theolite. Exercise 14-37 (20 minutes) 1. The relevant cost of genatope is calculated as follows: Cost of replacing the 1,000 kilograms to be used in the special order ?(1,000 kilograms ( 8.70p) 8,700p *Additional cost incurred on the next order of genatope as a result of ?having to place the order early [4,000 kilograms ( (8.70p ? 8.30p)] ??1,600p Total relevant cost 10,300p p denotes Argentina?s peso. *This cost would not be incurred if the special order were not accepted. 2. (a) 64,800p book value (8,000 kilograms ( 8.10p per kilogram): Irrelevant, since it is a sunk cost. (b) 1,000 kilograms to be used in the special order: Relevant, as shown in requirement (1). (c) 8.70p price if next order is placed early: Relevant, since this is the cost of replacing the used genatope. (d) 8.30p price if next order is placed on time: Relevant, because an additional 4,000 kilograms in the next order will be purchased at a .40p per kilogram premium. This .40p premium is the difference between the 8.70p price and the 8.30p price. Exercise 14-38 (15 minutes) 1. (a) $9,100 allocation of rent on factory building: Irrelevant, since Fusion Metals Company will rent the entire factory building regardless of whether it continues to operate the Packaging Department. If the department is eliminated, the space will be converted to storage space. (b) $11,000 rental of storage space in warehouse: Relevant, since this cost will be incurred only if the Packaging Department is kept in operation. If the department is eliminated, this $11,000 rental cost will be avoided. 2. The $11,000 warehouse rental cost is the opportunity cost associated with using space in Fusion Metals Company?s factory building for the Packaging Department. Exercise 14-39 (15 minutes) $45,000 salary of Packaging Department manager: Irrelevant, since this manager will be employed by the company at $45,000 per year regardless of whether the Packaging Department is kept in operation. $60,000 salary of Cutting Department manager if a new person must be hired: Relevant, since this cost will be incurred only if the Packaging Department is kept in operation. If the Packaging Department is eliminated, then that department?s current manager will move to the Cutting Department at $45,000 per year. The following comparison may help to clarify the analysis: Annual Salary Cost Incurred By Fusion Metals Company If Packaging Department is Kept If Packaging Department is Eliminated Salary of the person currently managing the ??Packaging Department $ 45,000* $45,000? Salary of newly hired person to manage the ?Cutting Department 60,000?? __ ?? Total $105,000?? $45,000?? Difference $60,000 *Continues to manage Packaging Department. ?Moves to Cutting Department position. Additional comment: There are many possible reasons why it might cost Fusion Metals Company more to hire a new Cutting Department manager than to transfer a current employee to the position. One possible scenario is that the current Packaging Department manager is a relatively young and inexperienced manager, to whom top management is willing to give the Cutting Department opportunity if the Packaging Department is eliminated. However, if a new person must be hired, Fusion Metals Company will be forced to go into the job market for more senior and experienced managers. Other possible reasons include existing contractual agreements, union contracts, and so forth. Exercise 14-40 (20 minutes) Sales revenue for one jar of silver polish $4.00 Sales revenue for 1/4 pound of Grit 337 ??.50 Incremental revenue from further processing $3.50 Incremental costs of further processing: ?Processing costs $2.50 ?Selling costs ??.30 ?2.80 Incremental contribution margin from further ?processing into silver polish (per jar) $ .70 Indifference point in units = EMBED Equation.3 = EMBED Equation.3 = 8,000 jars If more than 8,000 jars of silver polish can be sold, Zytel Corporation should process the required amount of Grit 337 further into the polish. Exercise 14-41 (10 minutes) The most profitable product is the one that yields the highest contribution margin per unit of the scarce resource, which is direct labor. We do not know the amount of direct-labor time required per unit of either product, but we do know that Dos requires six times as much direct labor per unit as Uno. Define an arbitrary time period for which direct laborers earn $1.00, and call this a ?time unit.? The two products? contribution margins per ?time unit? are calculated as follows: Uno Dos Unit contribution margin $3.00 $12.00 ?Time units? required per unit of product 1 6 Contribution margin per ?time unit? ?Uno: ($3.00 ÷ 1) $3.00 ?Dos: ($12.00 ÷ 6) $?2.00 Therefore, Uno is a more profitable product. Any arbitrary amount of direct labor time expended on Uno production will result in a greater contribution margin than an equivalent amount of labor time spent on Dos production. Exercise 14-42 (15 minutes) Decision variables: X = number of units of Uno to be produced Y = number of units of Dos to be produced Objective function: Maximize 3X + 12Y The coefficients of X and Y are the unit contribution margins for Uno and Dos, respectively. Maximizing this objective function will result in the highest possible total contribution margin. Constraints: Direct-labor time constraint: (1/24)X + (1/4)Y ( 10,000 The coefficients of X and Y are the number of hours of direct labor required to produce one unit of Uno and one unit of Dos, respectively. For example, the direct-labor cost per unit of Dos is $6.00, so it must require 1/4 direct-labor hour per unit of Dos. Machine time constraint: 1X + 2Y ( 8,000 The coefficients of X and Y are the number of hours of machine time required to produce one unit of Uno and one unit of Dos, respectively. Nonnegative production quantities: X, Y ( 0 The complete linear program is the following Maximize 3X + 12Y Subject to: (1/24)X + (1/4)Y ( 10,000 1X + 2Y ( 8,000 X, Y ( 0 Exercise 14-43 (30 minutes) 1. (a) Notation: X denotes the quantity of kreolite-red produced per day Y denotes the quantity of kreolite-blue produced per day (b) Contribution margin: Kreolite-Red Kreolite-Blue Price $36 $42 Unit variable cost ?28 ?28 Unit contribution margin $?8 $14 (c) Linear program: Maximize 8X + 14Y Subject to: 2X + ?2Y ( 24 1X + ?3Y ( 24 X, Y ( 0 Graphical solution: See next page. Corner points in feasible region: Objective function value: X = 0 Y = 0 $ 0 X = 0 Y = 8 112??? X = 6 Y = 6 132?? X = 12 Y = 0 96 The maximum objective function value is achieved when X = 6 and Y = 6. Thus, the company should produce 6 drums of kreolite-red per day and 6 drums of kreolite-blue per day. 3. The objective function value at the optimal solution is a $132 total contribution margin as shown in requirement (2). Exercise 14-43 (Continued) Graphical solution: solutions to Problems Problem 14-44 (25 minutes) 1. Blender Electric Mixer Unit cost if purchased from an outside supplier $20 $38 Incremental unit cost if manufactured: ?Direct material $?6 $11 ?Direct labor ??4 ??9 ?Variable overhead ??$16 ? $10 per hour fixed ??6 ??$32 ? (2)($10 per hour fixed) ?12 ??Total $16 $32 Unit cost savings if manufactured $?4 $?6 Machine hours required per unit ??1 ??2 Cost savings per machine hour if manufactured ?$4 ÷ 1 hour $4 ?$6 ÷ 2 hours $3 Therefore, each machine hour devoted to the production of blenders saves the company more than a machine hour devoted to mixer production. Machine hours available 50,000 Machine hours needed to manufacture 20,000 blenders 20,000 Remaining machine hours 30,000 Number of mixers to be produced (30,000 ÷ 2) 15,000 Conclusion: Manufacture 20,000 blenders Manufacture 15,000 mixers Purchase 13,000 mixers If the company?s management team is able to reduce the direct material cost per mixer to $6 ($5 less than previously assumed), then the cost savings from manufacturing a mixer are $11 per unit ($6 savings computed in requirement (1) plus $5 reduction in material cost): Problem 14-44 (Continued) Blender Electric Mixer New unit cost savings if manufactured $?4.00 $11.00 Machine hours required per unit ??1 MH ??2 MH Cost savings per machine hour if manufactured ?$4 ÷ 1 hour $?4.00 ?$11 ÷ 2 hours $?5.50 Therefore, devote all 50,000 hours to the production of 25,000 mixers. Conclusion: Manufacture: 25,000 mixers Purchase: 3,000 mixers Purchase: 20,000 blenders 3. In the electronic version of the solutions manual, press the CTRL key and click on the following link: HYPERLINK "Build%20a%20Spreadsheet%20Solutions%20-%20MANAGERIAL%20ACCOUNTING%20Hilton%207E/Build%20a%20Spreadsheet%20%2014-44.xls" Build a Spreadsheet PROBLEM 14-45 (25 MINUTES) Yes, the order should be accepted because it generates a profit of $34,050 for the firm. Note: The fixed administrative cost is irrelevant to the decision, because this cost will be incurred regardless of whether Jupiter accepts or rejects the order. Selling price??????????????????? $15.75 Less: Direct material ($8.20 - $2.10)????????. $6.10 Direct labor????????????????.. 2.25 Variable manufacturing overhead (.5 hours x $7.50*)???????????.. 3.75 12.10 Unit contribution margin?????????????. $ 3.65 Total contribution margin (11,000 units x $3.65)??.. $40,150 Less: Additional setup costs??????????? $3,700 Special device???????????????. 2,400 6,100 Net contribution to profit?????????????. $34,050 * Fixed manufacturing overhead: $750,000 ÷ 60,000 machine hours = $12.50 per hour Variable manufacturing overhead: $20.00 - $12.50 = $7.50 PROBLEM 14-45 (continued) No, Jupiter lacks adequate machine capacity to manufacture the entire order. Planned machine hours (5,000 hours x 3 months)?? 15,000 Current usage (15,000 hours x 70%)????????.. 10,500 Available hours?????????????????? 4,500 Required machine hours (11,000 units x .5 hours)?? 5,500 Options include the following: Sacrificing some current business in the hope that a long-term relationship with Venus can be established and proves to be profitable Acquiring more machine capacity Outsourcing some units Working overtime PROBLEM 14-46 (25 MINUTES) Per-unit contribution margins: Basic Enhanced Selling price???????????????... $250 $330 Less: Variable costs: Direct material??????????. $28 $45 Direct labor???????????.. 15 20 Variable manufacturing overhead ? 24 32 Sales commission $250 x 10%; $330 x 10%???. Total unit variable cost?????? 25 92 33 130 Unit contribution margin?????????? $158 $200 The following costs are not relevant to the decision: Development costs?sunk Fixed manufacturing overhead?will be incurred regardless of which product is selected Sales salaries?identical for both products Market study?sunk PROBLEM 14-46 (continued) Johnson and Gomez, Inc. expects to sell 10,000 Basic units (40,000 units x 25%) or 8,000 Enhanced units (40,000 units x 20%). On the basis of this sales forecast, the company would be advised to select the Basic model. Basic Enhanced Total contribution margin: 10,000 units x $158; 8,000 units x $200?. $1,580,000 $1,600,000 Less: Marketing and advertising?????? 130,000 200,000 Income?????????????????... $1,450,000 $1,400,000 The quantitative difference between the profitability of Basic and Enhanced is relatively small, which may prompt the firm to look at other factors before a final decision is made. These factors include: Competitive products in the marketplace Data validity Growth potential of the Basic and Enhanced models Production feasibility Effects, if any, on existing product sales Break-even points PROBLEM 14-47 (25 MINUTES) Tipton will be worse off by $12,800 if it discontinues wallpaper sales. Paint and Supplies Carpeting Wallpaper Sales????????.. $380,000 $460,000 $140,000 Less: Variable costs?. 228,000 322,000 112,000 Contribution margin?. $152,000 $138,000 $ 28,000 If wallpaper is closed, then: Loss of wallpaper contribution margin?... $(28,000) Remodeling??????????????. (12,400) Added profitability from carpet sales*?? 65,000 Fixed cost savings ($45,000 x 40%)???. 18,000 Decreased contribution margin from paint and supplies ($152,000 x 20%)?????.. (30,400) Increased advertising?????????.. (25,000) Income (loss) from closure??????? $(12,800) * The current contribution margin ratio for carpeting is 30% ($138,000 ÷ $460,000). This ratio will increase to 35%, producing a new contribution for the line of $203,000 [($460,000 + $120,000) x 35%]. The end result is that carpeting?s contribution margin will rise by $65,000 ($203,000 - $138,000), boosting firm profitability by the same amount. This cost should be ignored. The inventory cost is sunk (i.e., a past cost that is not relevant to the decision). Regardless of whether the department is closed, Tipton will have a wallpaper inventory of $23,700. The Internet- and magazine-based firms likely have several advantages: These companies probably carry little or no inventory. When a customer places an order, the firm simply calls its supplier and acquires the goods. The result may be lower expenditures for storage and warehousing. These firms do not need retail space for walk-in customers. Internet- and magazine-based firms can conduct business globally. Tipton, on the other hand, is confined to a single store in Des Moines. Problem 14-47 (continued) 4. In the electronic version of the solutions manual, press the CTRL key and click on the following link: HYPERLINK "Build%20a%20Spreadsheet%20Solutions%20-%20MANAGERIAL%20ACCOUNTING%20Hilton%207E/Build%20a%20Spreadsheet%20%2014-47.xls" Build a Spreadsheet Problem 14-48 (20 minutes) When there is no limit on production capacity the Pro model should be manufactured since it has the highest contribution margin per unit. Home Model Deluxe Model Pro Model Selling price $58 $65 $80 Direct material ?16 ?20 ?19 Direct labor ?10 ?15 ?20 Variable overhead ??8 ?12 ?16 Total variable cost $34 $47 $55 Contribution margin $24 $18 $25 When labor is in short supply the Home model should be manufactured, since it has the highest contribution margin per direct-labor hour. Home Model Deluxe Model Pro Model Contribution margin per unit $24 $18 $25??? Direct-labor hours required ?1.0 ?1.5 ?2.0??? Contribution margin per direct-labor hour $24 $12 $12.50 Problem 14-49 (20 minutes) The analysis prepared by the engineering, manufacturing, and accounting departments of CTR was not correct. However, their recommendation was correct, provided that potential labor-cost improvements are ignored. An incremental cost analysis similar to the following table should have been prepared to determine whether the pump should be purchased or manufactured. In the following analysis, fixed factory overhead costs and general and administrative overhead costs have not been included because they are not relevant; these costs would not increase, because no additional equipment, space, or supervision would be required if the pumps were manufactured. Therefore, if potential labor cost improvements are ignored, CTR should purchase the pumps because the purchase price of $68.00 is less than the $72.00 relevant cost to manufacture. Incremental cost analysis: Cost of 10,000 Unit Assembly Run Per Unit Purchased components $120,000 $12.00 Assembly labor ?300,000 30.00 Variable manufacturing overhead ?300,000 30.00 ?Total relevant cost $720,000 $72.00 Problem 14-50 (40 minutes) 1. a. An analysis of the relevant costs that shows whether the Midwest Division of Paibec Corporation should make MTR-2000 or purchase it from Marley Company is as follows: Amount Per Unit Total for 32,000 Units Cost to purchase MTR-2000 from Marley: ?Bid price from Marley $17.30 $553,600 ?Equipment lease penalty ($36,000/12) ( 2 ??6,000 ?Total cost to purchase $559,600 Cost for Midwest to make MTR-2000: ?Direct material ($195,000/30,000) ( 1.08 $?7.02 $224,640 ?Direct labor ($120,000/30,000) ( 1.05 ??4.20 134,400 ?Variable manufacturing overhead ??($225,000 ( .4)/30,000 ??3.00 96,000 ?Factory space rental 84,000 ?Equipment leasing costs ??36,000 ?Total cost to make $575,040 Cost savings if purchased from Marley $ (15,440 ) b. Based solely on the financial results, the 32,000 units of MTR-2000 should be purchased from Marley. The total cost from Marley would be $559,600, or $15,440 less than if the units were made by the Midwest Division. The qualitative factors that the Midwest Division and Paibec Corporation should consider before agreeing to purchase MTR-2000 from Marley Company include the following: The quality of the Marley component should be equal to, or better than, the quality of the internally made component, or else the quality of the final product might be compromised and Paibec?s reputation adversely affected. Marley?s reliability as an on-time supplier is important, since late deliveries could hamper Paibec?s production schedule and delivery dates for the final product. Problem 14-50 (Continued) Layoffs may result if the component is outsourced to Marley. This could impact Midwest?s and Paibec?s other employees and cause labor problems or affect the company?s position in the community. In addition, there may be termination costs that have not been factored into the analysis. Lynn Hardt would consider the request of John Porter to be unethical for the following reasons, which are based on the IMA Statement of Ethical Professional Practice. Competence: Provide decision support information and recommendations that are accurate, clear, concise, and timely. Integrity: Abstain from engaging in or supporting any activity that might discredit the profession. Credibility: Communicate information fairly and objectively. Hardt needs to perform an objective make-versus-buy analysis and communicate the results fairly. Problem 14-51 (45 minutes) RNA-1 is converted into Fastkil. RNA-2 can be sold as is or converted into two new products. Management?s analysis is incorrect because it incorporates allocated portions of the joint processing costs of VDB. The weekly cost of VDB ($246,000) will be incurred whether or not RNA-2 is converted through further processing. Thus, any allocation of the common cost of VDB is strictly arbitrary and not relevant to the decision to market DMZ-3 and Pestrol. The decision not to process RNA-2 further is incorrect. This flawed decision resulted in the company failing to earn an incremental $20,000 in gross profit per week, as indicated by the following analysis. b. Revenue from further processing of RNA-2: ?DMZ-3 (400,000 ( $57.50/100) $230,000 ?Pestrol (400,000 ( $57.50/100) ?230,000 ??Total revenue from further processing $460,000 Less revenue from sale of RNA-2 ?320,000 ?Incremental revenue $140,000 ?Less incremental cost* ?120,000 ?Incremental profit $?20,000 *The cost of VDB is not relevant and therefore is omitted from the solution. Problem 14-52 (50 minutes) Sets result in a 20% increase, or 1,500 dresses (1,250 ( 1.20 = 1,500). Total Number of Percent of Total Dresses Capes Handbags Total Complete sets 70% 1,050 1,050 1,050 Dress and cape ?6% ??90 ??90 Dress and handbag 15% ?225 ?225 Dress only ??9% ??? 135 Total units if accessories are ?introduced 100% 1,500 1,140 1,275 Less: Unit sales if accessories are ?not introduced ?? 1,250 ??? ? ?? ? ? Incremental sales ?250 1,140 1,275 Incremental contribution margin ?per unit (excluding material and ?cutting costs) ? ( $120 (??$8 (??$3 Total incremental contribution ?margin $30,000 $9,120 $3,825 $42,945 Additional costs: ?Additional cutting cost ??(1,500 x 91% ( $9) $12,285 ?Additional material cost ??(250 ( $50) ?12,500 ?Lost remnant sales ??[(1,250 ? 135) ( $5] ??5,575 ?Incremental cutting for ??extra dresses (250 ( $20) ??5,000 ?35,360 Incremental profit $?7,585 Qualitative factors that could influence the company?s management team in its decision to manufacture matching capes and handbags include: accuracy of forecasted increase in dress sales. accuracy of forecasted product mix. Problem 14-52 (Continued) company image of a dress manufacturer versus a more extensive supplier of women?s apparel. competition from other manufacturers of women?s apparel. whether there is adequate capacity (labor, facilities, storage, etc.). Problem 14-53 (40 minutes) The incremental cost of producing one unit of component B81 is computed as follows: Direct material $?3.75 Direct labor 4.50 Variable overhead ??2.25 Total variable cost per unit $10.50 Purchase price quoted for component B81 $13.50 Incremental cost of production per unit ?10.50 Net loss per unit if purchased $?3.00 Net loss per machine hour if component B81 is purchased = $3.00/3 machine hours = $1.00 per machine hour. Problem 14-53 (continued) 2. T79?? ?? B81 Purchase price quoted $11.25 $13.50 Direct material $?2.25 $?3.75 Direct labor 4.00 4.50 Variable overhead ??2.00 ??2.25 Total variable cost $?8.25 $10.50 Net benefit per unit of making component $?3.00 $?3.00 ÷ Machine hours required per unit ÷ 2.5 ÷ 3 Net benefit per machine hour of making component $?1.20 $?1.00 Machine hours available 41,000 hours Best use of machine time: produce 8,000 units of component T79 ?(8,000 ( 2.5 hrs. per unit) 20,000 hours Machine hours remaining for production of component B81 21,000 hours ÷ Machine hours required per unit of component B81 ÷ 3 hrs. per unit Feasible production of component B81: (21,000/3) 7,000 units Required quantity of component B81 11,000 units Feasible production of component B81 ???? 7,000 units Quantity of component B81 to be purchased ???? 4,000 units Conclusion: purchase 4,000 units of component B81 and manufacture the remaining bearings. Answer to requirement (2): d 3. Variable cost per unit of component B81 $10.50 Traceable, avoidable, fixed cost per unit of ?component B81 ($44,000/11,000 units) ??4.00 Maximum price Upstate Mechanical should pay for component B81 $14.50 Problem 14-54 (25 minutes) 1. Incremental unit cost if purchased: ?Purchase price $15,000 ?Material handling ??3,000 ?Total $18,000 Incremental unit cost if manufactured: ?Direct material $?1,000 ?Material handling 200 ?Direct labor 8,000 ?Variable manufacturing overhead ($12,000 ( 1/3) ??4,000 ?Total $13,200 Increase in unit cost if purchased ($18,000 ? $13,200) $?4,800 2. Increase in monthly cost of acquiring part JR63 if purchased ?(10 ( $4,800, as computed above) $48,000 Less: rental revenue from idle space ?25,000 Increase in monthly cost $23,000 3. Contribution forgone by not manufacturing alternative product $52,000 Savings in the cost of acquiring JR63 ?(10 ( $4,800 as computed in requirement 1) ?48,000 Net cost of using limited capacity to produce part JR63 $?4,000 Problem 14-55 (45 minutes) 1. Sell to Kaytell as Special Order Convert to Standard Model Sell as Special Order as Is ?Sales price $68,400 $62,500 $52,000 ?Less cash discount -? ??1,250 ? ?Net price $68,400 $61,250 $52,000 ?Additional manufacturing costs ??Direct material $?6,200 $?2,850 $ ???? ??Direct labor ??4,200 ??3,300 ? ??Variable manufacturing overhead ??2,100 ??1,650 ? ?Total additional manufacturing costs $12,500 $?7,800 $ ???? ?Commissions ??2,052 ??1,250 ??1,560 ?Total costs and expenses $14,552 ??9,050 ??1,560 Net contribution $53,848 $52,200 $50,440 2. Contribution from sale to Kaytell $53,848 Contribution from next best alternative: ?sell as standard model ?52,200 Difference in contribution $?1,648 Percentage of sales price received net of ?commission on special order: 100% ? 3% ???? 97 % Acceptable reduction in sales price from Kaytell = EMBED Equation.3 = $1,699 (rounded) Original price quote to Kaytell $68,400 Acceptable reduction ??1,699 Minimum acceptable price from Kaytell $66,701 Proof: Suppose Kaytell pays a price of $66,701: ?Sales price $66,701 ?Less: Sales commission (3%) ??2,001 (rounded) $64,700 ?Less: Additional manufacturing costs ?12,500 ?Contribution with reduced price to Kaytell $52,200 Problem 14-55 (Continued) Therefore, at a price of $66,701 to Kaytell, Miami Industries? management would be indifferent between selling the machine to Kaytell and converting it to a standard model. At any price quote from Kaytell below $66,701, Miami Industries? management would prefer to convert the machine to a standard model. Fixed manufacturing overhead should have no influence on the sales price quoted by Miami Industries for special orders. Management should accept special orders whenever the firm is operating substantially below capacity, including below the breakeven point, whenever the marginal revenue from the order exceeds the marginal cost. Normally, this would mean that the order should be accepted as long as the sales price of the order exceeds the variable production costs. The special order will result in a positive contribution toward fixed costs. The fixed manufacturing overhead is not considered in pricing because it will be incurred whether the order is accepted or not. Problem 14-56 (40 minutes) The costs that will be relevant in Donato?s analysis of the special order being considered by Winner?s Circle, Inc. are those expected future costs that are applicable to a particular decision (the costs that will differ between the alternatives of accepting or rejecting the offer). Only the variable costs of labor and material are relevant. Since the order was received directly by Winner?s Circle, variable marketing is not relevant, because additional marketing costs will not be incurred under this order. Also, the fixed costs are not relevant, because no additional capital investments are needed to meet the order. The firm is operating below full capacity and will be able to absorb this order. Winner?s Circle, Inc. should accept the offer. Although the combined average unit cost of $148.75 is higher than the price offered, the incremental average unit cost is only $85.00 for the units in the special order. Accepting the special order will result in a contribution per unit of $15.00 ($100.00 less $85.00) and a total additional contribution margin of $37,500 (2,500 units ( $15.00). The calculations follow. Problem 14-56 (Continued) Current Monthly Production Special Order Combined Production Units produced ???? 7,500 ???? 2,500 ?? ?10,000 Sales $1,312,500 a $250,000 b $1,562,500 Variable costs: ?Direct labor $? 375,000 $125,000 c $? 500,000 ?Direct material 262,500 ??87,500 d 350,000 ?Marketing ?? 187,500 ???? ?? 187,500 ??Total variable costs $? 825,000 $212,500 $1,037,500 Fixed costs: ?Manufacturing $? 275,000 ????? $? 275,000 ?Marketing ?? 175,000 ???? ?? 175,000 ??Total fixed costs $? 450,000 ???? $? 450,000 Total costs $1,275,000 $212,500 $1,487,500 Income before tax $?? 37,500 $?37,500 $?? 75,000 Cost per unit Variablee $110.00 $85.00 $103.75 Fixedf ??60.00 ? ??45.00 ?Average unit costg $170.00 $85.00 $148.75 a$175 ( 7,500 units = $1,312,500 b$100 ( 2,500 units = $250,000 c($375,000/7,500 units) ( 2,500 units = $125,000 d($262,500/7,500 units) ( 2,500 units = $87,500 eTotal variable cost/units produced = variable incremental cost per unit fTotal fixed cost/units produced = fixed cost per unit gTotal cost/units produced = average cost per unit Problem 14-56 (Continued) 3. Other considerations that Cathy Donato should include in her analysis of the special order include the following: Possible problems with other customers who pressure the company for similar treatment. The future customer potential of the buyer of the special order, generating additional revenues. Cathy Donato could try to resolve the ethical conflict arising out of the controller?s insistence that the company avoid competitive bidding by taking the following steps: She should follow the company?s established policies on such matters. If such policies do not exist, or if they do not resolve the conflict, she should discuss the situation with her manager unless, as in this case, the manager is involved in the conflict. Then, she should discuss the situation with the manager?s supervisor. If this approach does not help her resolve the matter, then she should continue going to the next-higher managerial level, including the audit committee of the board of directors, if necessary. Donato should clarify relevant concepts by confidential discussions with an objective advisor to obtain an understanding of possible courses of action. If the ethical conflict still exists after exhausting all of these avenues of internal review, she may have to resign from the company and submit an informative memorandum to the board of directors. 5. In the electronic version of the solutions manual, press the CTRL key and click on the following link: HYPERLINK "Build%20a%20Spreadsheet%20Solutions%20-%20MANAGERIAL%20ACCOUNTING%20Hilton%207E/Build%20a%20Spreadsheet%20%2014-56.xls" Build a Spreadsheet Problem 14-57 (45 minutes) Machine hour requirements: Department Product 1 2 3 4 M07 500 500 1,000 1,000 T28 400 400 ? 800 B19 2,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 Total required 2,900 2,900 2,000 2,800 Total available 3,000 3,100 2,700 3,300 Excess (deficiency) ??100 ??200 ??700 ??500 Direct-labor hour requirements: Department Product 1 2 3 4 M07 1,000 1,500 1,500 500 T28 400 800 ? 800 B19 2,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 Total required 3,400 4,300 3,500 2,300 Total available 3,700 4,500 2,750 2,600 Excess (deficiency) ? 300 ?200 ? (750) ?300 The monthly sales demand cannot be met for all three products as a result of the labor shortage in Department 3. The goal is to maximize contribution margin. Fixed costs are not relevant. The scarce resource is direct-labor hours (DLH) in Department 3. Ozark should first produce the product that maximizes contribution margin per unit of the scarce resource (DLH). In this case two products, M07 and B19, require direct-labor hours in Department 3. Product M07 T28 B19 Sales price $196 $123 $167 Variable costs ?Direct material $ ??7 $?13 $?17 ?Direct labor ??66 ??38 ??51 ?Variable overhead ??27 ??20 ??25 ?Variable selling ???3 ???2 ???4 Total variable costs $103 $?73 $?97 Contribution margin $?93 $?50 $?70 Problem 14-57 (continued) Product Contribution Margin Department 3 DLH Contribution Margin per DLH M07 $93 3 $31 B19 70 2 35 Units Department 3 DLH Required Balance (DLH) Maximum DLH available ? in Department 3 2,750 Product B19 first 1,000 2,000 750 Product M07 second 250 750 -0- RESULTING PRODUCTION SCHEDULE Product Units Comments M07 250 Produce as much as the constraint allows (750 ÷ 3 DLH per unit). Reduced production is based on its lower contribution margin per direct-labor hour. T28 400 Produce up to monthly sales demand; unaffected by Department 3. B19 1,000 Produce as much as possible to maximize contribution margin per DHL. SCHEDULE OF CONTRIBUTION MARGIN BY PRODUCT Product Contribution Margin per Unit Units Produced Contribution to Profit M07 $93 ? 250 $?23,250 T28 ?50 ?400 ??20,000 B19 ?70 1,000 ??70,000 Total contribution margin $113,250 To supply the additional quantities of M07 that are required, Ozark should consider: subcontracting the additional units. operating on an overtime basis. acquiring labor from outside the community. Problem 14-58 (30 minutes) Costs to be avoided by purchasing (conventional analysis): Direct material $300,000 Direct labor 180,000 Variable overhead 120,000 Fixed overhead: ?Supervisory salaries 80,000 ?Machinery depreciation ??28,000 Total $708,000 2. Costs to be avoided by purchasing (ABC analysis): Direct material $300,000 Direct labor 180,000 Overhead: ?Product development $600* ( 10? 6,000 ?Supervisory salaries $40 ( 2,000 80,000 ?Material handling $8 ( 6,000 48,000 ?Purchasing $250 ( 55 13,750 ?Inspection $300 ( 30 9,000 ?Setup $400 ( 15 6,000 ?Electricity $1.40 ( 70,000 98,000 ?Oil and lubrication $.24 ( 70,000 16,800 ?Equipment maintenance $.36 ( 70,000 25,200 ?Machinery depreciation $.40 ( 70,000 ??28,000 ?Total $810,750 *Pool rates for the Savannah plant from Exhibit 14-20. ?Levels of cost drivers associated with canister production (from the information given in the problem). Problem 14-58 (Continued) 3. Make-or-buy analysis using ABC data: Cost savings if canisters are purchased ?(ABC analysis) $810,750 Cost to purchase canisters ?760,000 Net advantage to purchasing $?50,750 International Chocolate Company will save over $50,000 if it accepts Catawba?s offer. The final decision, however, should take qualitative factors into account also. Issues such as supplier reliability, product quality, and employee morale should be considered. 4.. The relevant costing approach remains valid when ABC data are used. The objective is to determine what costs will be avoided if the canisters are purchased. The ABC analysis is able to more accurately identify the avoidable costs. Costs that are assumed to be fixed and unavoidable under the conventional analysis are shown by the ABC analysis to vary with the appropriate cost drivers. In this light, many of these costs are seen to be avoidable if the canisters are purchased. PROBLEM 14-59 (40 MINUTES) 1. In order to maximize contribution margin, the objective function and constraint functions would be formulated as follows: Notation: V = number of batches of Venus candy bars C = number of batches of Comet candy bars TCM = total contribution margin The contribution margin is the selling price less variable cost for each product. Thus, for the Comet candy bar, the contribution margin is $125 ($350 less $225), and for the Venus candy bar, it is $200 ($300 less $100). Therefore, the objective function is as follows: Maximize TCM = 125C + 200V Subject to the following constraints: Mixing Department: 1.5V + 1.5C ( 525 Coating Department: 2.0V + 1.0C ( 500 Materials: C ( 300 Nonnegativity: V ( 0 and C ( 0 2. The number of batches of each candy bar that should be produced to maximize contribution can be determined by graphing the linear program, as shown on the following page. The optimal solution is to produce 200 batches of Comet bars and 150 batches of Venus bars. 3. The total contribution margin, then, is $55,000 [(200 ( $125) + (150 ( $200)]. PROBLEM 14-59 (CONTINUED) Graph of linear program: EMBED Excel.Sheet.8 Problem 14-60 (45 minutes) The objective function and constraints that Meals for Professionals, Inc. should use to maximize profits are as follows: Maximize 120P + 90H Subject to: 2P + H ( 60 (preparation) 2P + 3H ( 120 (cooking) P ( 45 (freezing) P ( 0 H (0 Problem 14-60 (Continued 2. Graph of linear program: Problem 14-60 (Continued) 3. & 4. Corner Points in Feasible Region Objective Function Value P = 0 H =0 ($120)(0) + ($90)(0) = 0 P = 0 H = 40 ($120)(0) + ($90)(40) = $3,600 P = 15 H = 30 ($120)(15) + ($90)(30) = $4,500 P = 30 H = 0 ($120)(30) + ($90)(0) = $3,600 Contribution margin at the optimal solution = $4,500. Problem 14-60 (Continued) 5. Graph of linear program: Problem 14-60 (Continued) Corner Points in Feasible Region Objective Function Value P = 0 H =0 ($120)(0) + ($90)(0) = 0 P = 0 H = 40 ($120)(0) + ($90)(40) = $3,600 P = 45 H = 10 ($120)(45) + ($90)(10) = $6,300 P = 45 H = 0 ($120)(45) + ($90)(0) = $5,400 Contribution margin at the optimal solution = $6,300. PROBLEM 14-61 (50 MINUTES) Linear programming (LP) is designed to determine the optimum mix when resources are limited and can be switched or allocated among products. LP would be appropriate for Colonial Corporation because the company has limited facilities (machine capacity), limited resources (labor), and contractual obligations (minimum quantities to be sold) that must be considered in order to maximize profit. Notation: RL = Regular model in Labor Assembly RA = Regular model in Automated Assembly DL = Deluxe model in Labor Assembly DA = Deluxe model in Automated Assembly Objective function: * Maximize $10.30 RL + $11.65 RA + $18.55 DL + $19.90 DA *Supporting calculations (per-unit basis): RL RA DL DA Selling price $45.00 $45.00 $60.00 $60.00 Less: Variable costs: Raw material? $22.00 $22.00 $28.75 $28.75 Plating labor? 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 Assembly labor? 3.00 .60 3.00 .60 Plating supplies? 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25 Assembly supplies? 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 Plating power? 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 Assembly power? .75 1.80 .75 1.80 Selling? 3.00? 3.00? 3.00? 3.00? Total variable cost $34.70 $33.35 $41.45 $40.10 Contribution margin $10.30 $11.65 $18.55 $19.90 PROBLEM 14-61 (CONTINUED) Constraints: Direct labor (plating): .2 RL + .2 RA + .2 DL + .2 DA ( 30,000 hours Direct labor (assembly): .25 RL + .05 RA + .25 DL + .05 DA ( 40,000 hours Machine hours (plating): .15 RL + .15 RA + .15 DL + .15 DA ( 25,000 hours Machine hours (labor assembly): .02 RL +.02 DL ( 1,500 hours Machine hours (automated assembly): .05 RA + .05 DA ( 5,000 hours Sales contract (regular): RL + RA ( 35,000 units Sales contract (deluxe): DL + DA ( 35,000 units All variables nonnegative: RL, RA, DL, DA ( 0 *Supporting calculations (direct-labor time requirements): Plating $2.00/$10.00 = .20 hours Assembly: Labor $3.00/$12.00 = .25 hours Automated $.60/$12.00 = .05 hours solutions to cases Case 14-62 (45 minutes) In order to maximize the company?s profitability, Sportway Corporation should purchase 9,000 tackle boxes from Maple Products, manufacture 17,500 skateboards, and manufacture 1,000 tackle boxes. This combination of purchased and manufactured goods maximizes the contribution per direct-labor hour available. The analysis supporting this conclusion follows: Calculate unit contribution margins: Purchased Manufactured Tackle Boxes Tackle Boxes Skate- boards Selling price $86.00 $86.00 $45.00 Less: ?Material (68.00) (17.00) (12.50) ?Direct labor ? (18.75) (7.50) ?Manufacturing overhead* * ? (6.25) (2.50) ?Selling and administrative cost? ?(4.00) (11.00) ?(3.00) Contribution margin $14.00 $33.00 $19.50 Direct-labor hours per unit ? 1.25 .5 Contribution per hour ? $26.40 $39.00 *Calculation of variable overhead per unit: Tackle boxes: Direct-labor hours $18.75 ÷ $15.00 = 1.25 hours Overhead per direct-labor hour $12.50 ÷ 1.25 = $10.00 Capacity 8,000 boxes ( 1.25 = 10,000 hours Total overhead 10,000 hours ( $10 per hour = $100,000 Total variable overhead $100,000 ? $50,000 = $50,000 Variable overhead per hour $50,000 ÷ 10,000 = $5.00 Variable overhead per box $5.00 ( 1.25 = $6.25 Skateboards: Direct-labor hours $7.50 ÷ $15.00 = .5 hours Variable overhead $5.00 ( .5 = $2.50 ?In calculating the contribution margin, $6.00 of fixed overhead cost per unit for distribution must be deducted from the selling and administrative cost. Case 14-62 (Continued) The optimal use of Sportway?s scarce resource (direct labor) is to manufacture skateboards, up to the number of skateboards that the company can sell (17,500). With its remaining labor time, Sportway can produce 1,000 tackle boxes. The following table shows the improvement in the company?s total contribution margin if it manufactures 17,500 skateboards and 1,000 tackle boxes, rather than manufacturing 8,000 tackle boxes. The optimal use of Sportway?s available direct-labor hours (DLH): Item Quantity DLH per Unit Total DLH Balance of DLH Unit Contri- bution Total Contri- bution Total hours 10,000 Skateboards 17,500 ?.50 8,750 ?1,250 $19.50 $341,250 Make boxes ?1,000 1.25 1,250 ? 33.00 ??33,000 Buy boxes ?9,000 ? ? ? 14.00 ?126,000 Total contribution $500,250 Less: ?Contribution from manufacturing 8,000 boxes ??(8,000 ( $33.00) ?264,000 Improvement in contribution margin $236,250 Case 14-63 (60 minutes) 1. Memorandum Date: Today To: Alice Carlo, President, Alberta Gauge Company, Ltd. From: I.M. Student Subject: Suggested revision of product-line income statement a. The product-line income statement presented is not suitable for analysis and decision making. The statement does not distinguish between variable and fixed costs, which hinders any analysis on the impact of volume changes on profit. In addition, the statement does not distinguish between costs that are directly related (traceable) to a product line from those that are shared among all products. An alternative income statement format that would be more suitable for analysis and decision making would incorporate the contribution approach. Expenses would be classified in terms of variability and controllability such as: variable manufacturing, variable selling and administrative, direct fixed controllable by segment, direct fixed controllable by others, and common fixed. The common fixed costs would not be assigned to the product lines because such an allocation would be arbitrary. The contribution approach is more suitable for analysis and decision making because there is a meaningful assignment of costs to product lines. 2. a. The suggested discontinuance of the R-gauges would be cost effective, but the suggestions relating to E-gauges and Q-gauges would not be cost effective. These conclusions are based on the following quarterly analysis. Case 14-63 (continued) E-Gauge Q-Gauge R-Gauge Unit selling price $90 $200 $180 Unit variable costs ?Raw material $17 $31 $50 ?Direct labor 20 40 60 ?Variable manufacturing ??overhead 30 45 60 ?Shipping expenses ??4 ?10 ?10 ??Total ??? 71 ??? 126 ??? 180 Unit contribution margin $19 $?74 $??0 Increase (decrease) in units* ?E-gauge:?10,000 ( 50% (?(5,000 ) ?Q-gauge:?8,000 ( 15% (?1,200 ?R-gauge:?5,000 ( 100% (?(5,000 ) Increase (decrease) in total ?contribution margin $(95,000 ) $?88,800 $?????0 Decrease (increase) in fixed costs ? 80,000 ? (100,000 ) ?40,000 Increase (decrease) in segment ?contribution $(15,000 ) $(11,200 ) $40,000 *Unit sales = sales dollars ÷ unit sales price ?$100,000 ? $20,000 Yes, the president was correct in eliminating the R-gauges. The R-gauge sales price covers only its variable cost and does not contribute anything to manufacturing overhead or promotion costs. Thus, the R-gauge has a zero contribution margin. Yes, the president was correct in promoting the Q-gauge line rather than the E-gauge line, because the unit contribution margin and contribution per labor dollar is greater for the Q-gauge line as follows: E-Gauge Q-Gauge Unit contribution $19.00 $74.00 Contribution per direct-labor dollar .95 1.85 Case 14-63 (Continued) However, the president?s decisions regarding promotion expense do not seem well conceived. The decreased promotion on the E-gauge line and the increased promotion on the Q-gauge line do not produce sufficient contribution to offset the promotional costs. No. The proposed course of action does not make effective use of capacity. The 15 percent increase in production volume on the Q-gauge line will not require all of the capacity that has been released by discontinuing the R-gauge line or reducing the E-gauge line by 50 percent. Yes. The qualitative factors that management should consider before it decides whether to drop the R-gauge line include: Customer relations. The sale of E-gauges and Q-gauges may be related to the sale of R-gauges. Labor relations. Reducing employment may create labor problems. focus on ethics (See page 608 in the text.) This scenario addresses the effects of a decision to outsource, and as a result, close a department. Edgeworth is not acting ethically in asking Mint to withhold the ABC costing analysis data from Mello. To do so would be tantamount to deliberately risking that the company will incur unnecessary costs, which in turn could affect profitability negatively. Edgeworth is putting the well-being of himself and family above of the company?s best interests in making this request. Mint is correct to point out that the decision about how much weight should be placed on the ABC numbers, and how much on related issues of morale, quality and reliability, should derive from a ?full and open discussion? with all the relevant parties present. In order that Edgeworth is well-prepared for this discussion, the outcome of which may greatly affect his organization, it is appropriate that Mint share the data with him ahead of that meeting. Mint should also provide the same data to any other interested party ahead of the meeting to promote a well-informed discussion of the topic. Doing so will facilitate a rational discussion and a sound decision to be reached at the meeting. McGraw-Hill/Irwin ( 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 14- PAGE 4 Solutions Manual McGraw-Hill/Irwin ( 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Managerial Accounting, 7/e 14- PAGE 1
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