Chapter 9 Stratification and Social Mobility in the United States I Stratification A. Stratification: Uneven access to wealth, power and prestige B. Social Class: A large group of people ranked close to each other in terms of wealth, power, and prestige I Stratification (cont) C. Max Weber’s View on Social Class (i) wealth: Property and Income (ii) power (iii) prestige D. Uneven Distribution of (i) Wealth (ii) Income (iii) Salaries II Sociological Models of Social Class A. Erik Wright’s Model (i) capitalists: who own large enterprises (ii) petty bourgeoisie: who own small enterprises (iii) managers: who have authority over others (iv) workers: who work for the capitalist class or petty bourgeoisie II Sociological Models of Social Class (Cont) B. The Gilbert-Kahl Model (i) the capitalist class (1% of the population) investors, heirs, executives (ii) the upper-middle class (15% of the population) professionals and upper-managers (college, university, or post-graduate degree) (iii) the lower-middle class (32% of the population) lower managers, craftspeople, and foremen (high-school diplomas) II Sociological Models of Social Class (Cont) B. The Gilbert-Kahl Model: (iv) the working class (32% of the population) factory workers, low-paid white-collar workers, (most have high-school diplomas) (v) the working poor (16% of the population) the unskilled blue-collar and white-collar workers, and do temporary and seasonal jobs ( high-school under-achievers) (vi) the underclass (4% of the population) inner cities/ welfare-dependent (high-school under-achievers) III Consequences of Social Class (a) early death: The poor die faster (b) mental health: Mental stresses (c) family life: Mate-selection, child-rearing, and divorce (d) education: The prospects of education (e) religion: Baptists; Methodists; and Episcopalians III Consequences of Social Class (Cont) (f) political views: of the Rich and Poor (i) Voting Behavior (ii) Philosophical Orientations (g) the criminal justice system (h) technology (digital divide) IV Social Mobility Social Mobility: Movement of a large # of people from one class position to another. Three Kinds of Mobilities: (a) intergenerational mobility (b) structural mobility (c) exchange mobility: (i) Upward mobility (ii) Downward Mobility V Poverty and its concentration A. Poverty: Lacking financial resources to meet one’s basic needs B. Poverty Line: An income less than three times a low-cost food budget [Individual: $10,488; Family (4): $20,444 (USBC, 2006)] C. Poor In America 37million Americans (13%) V Poverty and its concentration (Cont) C. Concentration of Poverty: (i) geography of poverty: South, West, Northeast, and Midwest (ii) rurality of poverty: 9/56m (16%) (iii) race: 11% Caucasians; 13% Asian Americans; 26% AA; and 26% Latinos (Statistical Abstract 2000) (55% vs. 45%) (iv) education and poverty: 2% college grads; 25% high- school drop-outs V Poverty and its concentration (Cont) (v) age and poverty: Poverty among the elderly of all races: 11%; Caucasians 9%; Asian Americans 12%; Latinos 21%; African Americans 26% [Statistical Abstract 2000]) (vi) child poverty: 19% children (14 million) live in poverty. 15% Caucasians; 34% Latinos; 37% African Americans [Statistical Abstract, 2000]) (vii) feminization of poverty: 50% of female-headed households vs. 14% of male-headed households Reasons for Female Poverty: divorce, unwed motherhood, low-wage jobs. Female heads of families average less than two-thirds the income of male heads of families. VI Explanations of Poverty a) Individualistic Explanation: The culture of poverty theory: The assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, trapping them in poverty. (b) Statistical Evidence Against the Culture of Poverty Theory: 88% vs. 12% VI Explanations of Poverty (c) Sociological Explanation: Sociologists look at (i) inequalities in education and job skills (ii) discrimination on the basis of age, class, gender and race (iii) Large-scale socio-economic changes to explain the patterns of poverty.