Chapter 11: Europe and America, 1700 to 1800 Read chapter 11 in the textbook. The main ideas and vocabulary terms will be noted in the presentation. If the image from the book does not appear in the presentation, you will not be quizzed or tested on it. Chapter 11 learning objectives Ability to identify the key components of life and art in 18th century Europe and America Knowledge of Rococo, Enlightenment, and Neoclassical trends Rococo Dates and Places: 1715 to 1780 France and England People: Aristocrats Urban townhouses Social intercourse, cultivation of good taste Royal art academies Themes: Fete galante Leisure of the upper classes Ornament Forms: Small and delicate Pastels Feathery brushwork Rococo Amalienburg: Interiors totally designed Rocailles Organic, playful, moving decoration Proper setting for entertaining guests FRANCOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, early 18th century. Fig. 11-2. Rococo Antoine Watteau: Fete galante New category of painting Color for decorative effect, Rubeniste Light and airy Elegant sophistication Sensuality and sexuality ANTOINE WATTEAU, Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717. Fig. 11-3. Rococo Jean-Honore Fragonard: Small painting Playful painting of lovers and unsuspecting bishop Landscape setting Flirtatious flick of shoe Pastel colors Stage set JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD, The Swing, 1766. Fig. 11-4 Rococo Clodion: Rococo = intimate mood and setting, small works were typical Small tabletop sculpture representing sensuous Rococo fantasy Erotic playfulness terracotta CLODION, Satyr Crowning a Bacchante, 1770. Fig. 11-5. The Enlightenment Dates and Places: 1700-1800 Western Europe People: Replace faith with reason Scientific, empirical approach Philosophes Positivism Themes: Nature and naturalness Grand tour Genre Forms: Empirical observation Classicizing approach Narrative clarity The Enlightenment Joseph Wright: Illustrates interest in science and rationality Industrial Revolution transforms Europe Demonstration of mechanical solar system using orrery Observers embody Enlightenment age JOSEPH WRIGHT, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery, ca. 1763?1765. Fig. 11-6. The Enlightenment Chardin: Interest in natural, uncorrupted state Influence of Rousseau Domestic scenes of simple people Moral instruction Sentimental genre scene JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIMÉON CHARDIN, Saying Grace, 1740. Fig. 11-7. The Enlightenment Vigee-Lebrun: Self-portrait of self-confident female artist Not Rococo Portraitist to Marie Antoinette One of few women admitted to the French Royal Academy FYI ? there is a beautiful painting by Vigee-Lebrun in the New Orleans Museum of Art ÉLISABETH LOUISE VIGÉE-LEBRUN, Self-Portrait, 1790. Fig. 11-8. The Enlightenment William Hogarth: English painter and printmaker Satire of modern life Moralizing story of misbehaving upper class Narrative sequence like theater Comment on poor taste WILLIAM HOGARTH, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, ca. 1745. Fig. 11-9. The Enlightenment Thomas Gainsborough: Interest in the natural More intimate portrait type, reveals personality Some Rococo pretense Grand manner portraiture = refined, elegant portraits, large scale, symbolic setting, low horizon THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1787. Fig. 11-10. The Enlightenment BENJAMIN WEST, Death of General Wolfe, 1771. Fig. 11-11. The Enlightenment Benjamin West: American artist, worked in England Hero represented like Christian martyr History painting plus modern realism Contemporary costume BENJAMIN WEST, Death of General Wolfe, 1771. Fig. 11-11. The Enlightenment John Singleton Copley: American portraitist, moved to England American directness Lack of pretense for hero Embodies humble values of early American silversmith JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, Portrait of Paul Revere, ca. 1768?1770. Fig. 11-12. The Enlightenment Riva degli Schiavoni: Grand tour painting Souvenir of travels Marker of intellectual curiosity Illustrates importance of ancient Greece and Rome for Enlightenment thinkers Drawn on site, painted (and improved) later Veduta ? read about on page 330 ANTONIO CANALETTO, Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice, ca. 1735?1740. Fig. 11-13. Neoclassicism Dates and Places: Late 18th century France, England, US People: Admiration for antiquity Harmony and rationality Model of civilized society: civic virtue and self-sacrifice Winckelmann Themes: Ancient history Modern history Portraits Forms: Classical forms Balanced compositions Idealized figures Neoclassicism Angelica Kauffmann: Worked in England Exemplum virtutis Drawn from Roman story Children as jewels ANGELICA KAUFFMANN, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures, or Mother of the Gracchi, ca. 1785. Fig. 11-14. Neoclassicism JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Fig. 11-15. Neoclassicism Jacques-Louis David: Ancient Roman story Self-sacrifice Pose and gesture communicate state of mind Triangular composition David celebrates perfect forms of Greeks JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Fig. 11-15. Neoclassicism THOMAS JEFFERSON, Monticello, 1770?1806. Fig. 11-17. Neoclassicism Thomas Jefferson: Neoclassicism adopted as style of new American nation Evoke Republican Rome to communicate political philosophy Translated into local materials: wood, brick Jefferson studied Palladio THOMAS JEFFERSON, Monticello, 1770?1806. Fig. 11-17. Neoclassicism Jean-Antoine Houdon: Life-sized marble statue Leading French Neoclassical sculptor Fasces = authority 13 original states Cincinnatus Jean-Antoine Houdon, George Washington, 1788-1792. Fig. 11-18. This completes chapter 11. After you have read the chapter and reviewed the terms and information, take chapter 11 quiz. Post a response to the following question on the discussion board. Name one key difference between Rococo and Neoclassical art and use at least one example of each to support your answer. The quiz and posting are due by 11:55 on Wednesday, April 4.
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