Chapter 13 Personality Model of Mind -The mind is like an iceberg. -Mostly hidden, and below the surface lies the unconscious mind -The preconscious stores temporary memories Personality Structure -Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego) Id, Ego and Superego -The Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification -The ego functions as the ?executive? and mediates the demands of the Id and Superego -The superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations Oedipus Complex -A boy?s sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father -A girls desire for her father is called the Electra Complex Identification -Children cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by identifying with the rival parent -Through this process of identification, their superego gains strength that incorporates their parents? values Assessing Unconscious Processes -Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind?s perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that reveal the hidden unconscious mind Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) -Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes Rorschach Inkblot Test -Most widely used projective test uses a set of 10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann Rorschach -Seeks to identify people?s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots Projective Tests: Criticisms -Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability and validity 1.When evaluating the same patient, even trained raters came up with different interpretations (Reliability) 2.Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity) Humanistic Perspective -By the 1960?s psychologists became discontent with Freud?s negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists Maslow Carl Rogers Self-Actualizing Person -Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs -Beginning with physiological needs -Then try to reach state of self-actualization: fulfilling our potential Person-Centered Perspective -Carl Rogers believed in an individual?s self-actualization tendencies -Said that Unconditional Positive Regard is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings Assessing the Self -In an effort to assess personality, Rogers asked people to describe themselves as they would like to be and as they actually are -If the 2 descriptions were close that person has a positive self-concept Factor Analysis -Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions: 1.extraversion-introverson 2.Emotional stability-instability Social-Cognitive Perspective -Bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context Personal Control -Social cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control, whether we control the environment or the environment controls us -External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond out personal control determine our fate -Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we control our own fate Learned Helplessness -When unable to avoid repeated adverse events an animal or human learns helplessness Self-Serving Bias -We accept responsibility for good deeds and successes more than for bad deeds and failures -Defensive self-esteem is fragile and egotistic -Secure self-esteem is less fragile and less dependent on external evaluation
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