PSY1001_101 (Fall 2007) Chapter 16 (Social Cognition and Relationships) Page PAGE 1 of NUMPAGES 16 The scientific study of how people?s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by other people is the basis for (A) A. social psychology. B. personality psychology. C. developmental psychology. D. clinical psychology. John noticed that whenever his mother-in-law is around, his wife begins to speak and act in more formal, socially desirable ways. John?s observation would be interesting to a _____, who studies how people?s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by others. (C) A. developmental psychologist B. clinical psychologist C. social psychologist D. personality psychologist The process of changing people?s attitudes is known as (B) A. obedience. B. persuasion. C. compliance. D. conformity. Your friend knows that you are opposed to tuition increases on your campus. Nevertheless, she argues that increasing tuition will lead to better facilities and computers on campus. Your friend is using ______, hoping to change your attitudes about tuition increases. (D) A. conformity B. obedience C. compliance D. persuasion Your dad asks you how you like your psychology class. You respond, ?I really enjoy this class. The material is interesting, and I like learning about new theories.? You have expressed (B) A. a value. B. an attitude. C. conformity. D. obedience. Which of the following characteristics of a communicator is associated with an increase in persuasion? (B) A. physical and social attraction. B. physical attraction, social attraction, and trustworthiness. C. trustworthiness and ulterior motives. D. physical attraction, trustworthiness, and ulterior motives. Which of the following statements about message characteristics is true? (A) A. Two-sided messages are more effective than one-sided messages when the audience is knowledgeable about a topic. B. One-sided messages are always more effective than two-sided messages when the audience is knowledgeable about a topic. C. The use of statistics in persuasive messages leads to the greatest amount of attitude change. D. A message such as ?If you smoke, you?ll die of cancer? leads to maximum attitude change. Research on gender differences and the ease of being persuaded suggests that (D) A. men are more likely than women to change their private attitudes. B. women are more likely than men to change their private attitudes. C. men are more likely than women to change their public attitudes. D. women are more likely than men to change their public attitudes. A politician comes to campus and speaks to your psychology class about the importance of social security and affordable health care for senior citizens. You will most likely process the politician?s message using (B) A. the central route. B. the peripheral route. C. elaborate processing. D. motivated processing. When a person has a strong interest in topics or has a strong motivation to understand them, she is likely to use _____ when processing persuasive arguments related to those topics. (D) A. heuristic processing B. shallow processing C. the peripheral route D. the central route Jack and Jill are watching a political debate on television. As one candidate speaks, Jill pays attention to the quality of the issues and arguments that are presented. Jack assumes that the candidate?s arguments are reasonable because she is dressed nicely. Jill has used ________, whereas Jack has used ________. (A) A. central processing; peripheral processing B. peripheral processing; central processing C. heuristic processing; dissonance processing D. dissonance processing; heuristic processing Which of the following statements about information processing is true? (D) A. People who are motivated and involved in an issue tend to use peripheral processing. B. People who are inattentive tend to use central processing. C. When people are swayed by a speaker?s appearance, they are using central processing. D. Peripheral processing produces less persistent attitude change than central processing. Research suggests that there is a _____ correlation between the need for cognition and the likelihood of using central processing. (B) A. negative B. positive C. weak D. nonsignificant Joey enjoys engaging his friends in philosophical conversations, and they often describe him as ?The Thinker.? Joey is always contemplating the world and people, trying to understand how they work. Joey probably has a strong (D) A. need to belong. B. need for closure. C. need for structure. D. need for cognition. Martha believes that she is a loyal person. However, she is having an extramarital affair without her husband?s knowledge. According to social psychology research, Martha will likely experience what psychologists call (C) A. mental contrast. B. attitude arousal. C. cognitive dissonance. D. behavioral anxiety. According to cognitive dissonance theorists, Sherry will improve her attitude toward washing dishes (a boring task) if she (D) A. is threatened with punishment if she doesn?t wash them. B. washes dishes with other people instead of by herself. C. is given a lot of money to wash them. D. washes dishes with minimal incentive. In a famous experiment conducted by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959), participants were asked to turn pegs on a board, an extremely boring task. Later on, half the participants were offered $20 to tell another person that the task was actually interesting and fun, whereas the other half of the participants were offered only $1 to tell the same lie. What did the results of this experiment suggest? (A) A. Participants who were paid $1 developed more positive attitudes toward the task. B. Participants who were paid $1 developed even more negative attitudes toward the task. C. Participants had en equal amount of attitude change toward the task, regardless of how much money they were paid. D. Participants were so honest that none of them would deceive the other person, regardless of how much money they were offered. In what ways can people reduce the discomfort that is associated with cognitive dissonance? (D) A. They can change one or both conflicting cognitions. B. They can change the perceived importance of one cognition. C. They can deny that there is a relationship between two conflicting cognitions. D. A, B, and C Stewart believes that pornography is immoral, yet he often views pornographic images on the Internet. To justify his behavior, Stewart tells himself that he attends church frequently enough that viewing pornography is really not that harmful. Stewart is reducing his dissonance by (D) A. changing one or both cognitions that conflict with each other. B. changing how important one of the cognitions seems to him. C. denying that there is a relationship between two conflicting cognitions. D. adding new cognitions that reduce the conflict he feels. Arthur is dieting, but he frequently eats food items that violate his diet. He tells his friends, ?I don?t ?cheat? on my diet all that often.? Arthur is reducing his dissonance by (A) A. changing one or both conflicting cognitions. B. changing the perceived importance of one cognition. C. denying that there is a relationship between two conflicting cognitions. D. adding new cognitions. The ways in which people understand and make sense of themselves and other people is called (C) A. impression formation. B. self-perception. C. social cognition. D. self-other discrepancy. Which of the following is a function of schema? (C) A. They organize information in memory and represent the way we believe the social world works. B. They organize information in memory and guarantee that we will find correct solutions to problems. C. They organize information in memory, represent the way we believe the social world works, and help us to recognize and recall information about social stimuli. D. They organize information in memory, represent the way we believe the social world works, and guarantee that we will find correct solutions to problems. Rhonda knows that Jim is a lawyer. From this, she predicts that Jim is probably shrewd, unemotional, and greedy. Rhonda?s perception of Jim is influenced by (B) A. dissonance. B. a schema. C. an algorithm. D. discrepancies. Earl is told that his new roommate is extraverted, humorous, sarcastic, and thrifty. Earl?s impression of the roommate is heavily influenced by knowledge that the roommate is sarcastic. This suggests that for Earl, sarcasm is a (B) A. cardinal trait. B. central trait. C. secondary trait. D. schematic trait. Ellen watches a funny television show before going on a date with a person she has never met (a ?blind date?). Thus she is in a happy mood when she meets her date. According to research, Ellen will most likely (C) A. take the sum of her date?s individual traits to form an impression of him. B. form an impression of her date an hour after meeting him. C. form a relatively positive impression of her date. D. form a relatively negative impression of her date. If you want to understand how a person uses a sample of behavior to decide why others behave the way they do, then you should read research related to (A) A. attribution theory. B. behavioral theory. C. cognitive dissonance theory. D. self-evaluation maintenance theory. Tommy failed his math test, and his teacher believes that his poor performance is the result of anxiety caused by the divorce of his parents. The teacher has attributed performance to (A) A. situational causes. B. dispositional causes. C. dissonant causes. D. intrapersonal causes. Linda passes the bar exam that allows her to practice law. Her parents explain her success by saying, ?We knew she could do it; she has always been smart.? Linda?s parents have attributed performance to (B) A. situational causes. B. dispositional causes. C. dissonant causes. D. interpersonal causes. Bob and Leslie have just met, and Bob feels that Leslie is quite physically attractive. Because Leslie is attractive, Bob also assumes that she is nice, caring, and generous. Bob?s perceptions have been influenced by the (B) A. fundamental attribution error. B. halo effect. C. assumed-similarity bias. D. self-serving bias. When we initially know that a person has one negative characteristic and then assume that he or she has other uniformly negative characteristic, we are susceptible to the (D) A. assumed-similarity bias. B. self-serving bias. C. fundamental attribution error. D. halo effect. If you believe that you share more attitudes and behaviors in common with your friends, then you have demonstrated the (C) A. fundamental attribution error. B. halo effect. C. assumed-similarity bias. D. self-serving bias. When Lauren and Joan meet each other for the first time, they realize that they share many values and attitudes, and they believe they have many other commonalities as well. Their thinking is shaped by the (C) A. fundamental attribution error. B. halo effect. C. assumed-similarity bias. D. self-serving bias. If you attribute all your successes to something about yourself and all your failures to factors outside of yourself, then you are demonstrating the (A) A. self-serving bias. B. fundamental attribution error. C. halo effect. D. assumed-similarity bias. On your first psychology exam, you perform very well and believe that you have the natural ?smarts? it takes to learn psychology. On your second exam, however, you perform poorly and believe that the exam was too difficult. You have demonstrated the (B) A. fundamental attribution error. B. self-serving bias. C. halo effect. D. assumed-similarity bias. When people overemphasize the role of dispositional causes in others? behavior while underestimating the role of situational causes, they commit the (A) A. fundamental attribution error. B. self-serving bias. C. halo effect. D. assumed-similarity bias. You attend a play in which a fellow student plays the role of a mayor in a small town. After the performance, you encourage the student to run for a position on your school?s student government. Your assumption that this student would be a good leader based on his role in a play reflects the (C) A. halo effect. B. assumed-similarity bias. C. fundamental attribution error. D. self-serving bias. You ask your friend if you can borrow her Madonna CD. She tells you no, and gives no explanation why. You conclude that your friend is selfish, not taking into consideration that she needs that CD for a class presentation. You have demonstrated the (A) A. fundamental attribution error. B. self-serving bias. C. halo effect. D. assumed-similarity bias. Research findings on the fundamental attribution error suggests that (D) A. the error is more pronounced when trying to explain our own behavior. B. this error occurs when people overemphasize situational factors in others? behavior. C. people usually focus on the environment when observing others? behavior. D. this error occurs more often in western cultures than in eastern cultures. According to research, which of the following statements about attributions in Asian cultures is correct? (B) A. People from Asia tend to overemphasize dispositional factors when explaining others? behavior. B. People from Asia tend to overemphasize situational factors when explaining others? behavior. C. People from Asia tend to be heavily influenced by the halo effect. D. People from Asia generally do not make as many attributions for behavior as people from the United States. In eastern cultures, good academic performance is attributed to _____; in western cultures, good academic performance is attributed to _____. (B) A. dispositional causes; situational causes B. situational causes; dispositional causes C. intrapersonal causes; temperamental causes D. temperamental causes; intrapersonal causes When individuals and groups affect the behavior of others, _____ has occurred. (B) A. persuasion B. social influence C. cognitive dissonance D. schematic behavior If a person changes her behavior so that she ?fits? with other people?s beliefs or standards, then she has experienced (D) A. persuasion. B. obedience. C. compliance. D. conformity. Norah believes that all the members of a desirable sorority drink a certain brand of soda. On a recent shopping trip, Norah made sure that she bought only this particular soda, even though she does not necessarily like its taste. Based on this information, it is clear that Norah has (C) A. been persuaded. B. obeyed. C. conformed. D. complied. In his classic conformity experiment, Solomon Asch (1951) was alarmed to discover that young men from Yale University conformed to the incorrect answers of members in a laboratory group. Part of Asch?s surprise was probably related to the fact that the (B) A. other members of the group were not experts on the task. B. correct answers on the task were obvious. C. group members were given large financial incentives to be correct. D. group members could not all agree on what answer was correct or incorrect. Richard tries to convince his company that merging with a larger organization is a financial mistake. Only one other person, Myra, shares and voices Richard?s perspective. Myra is what social psychologists call a (D) A. conformity guard. B. traitor. C. whistleblower. D. social supporter. A group?s expectations about how all its members should behave are known as (A) A. norms. B. roles. C. algorithms. D. stereotypes. When group members are strongly motivated to reach consensus and do not pay attention to alternative points of view, they are likely to experience (D) A. process gains. B. the fundamental attribution error. C. social loafing. D. groupthink. Groupthink can be thought of as a tendency to (A) A. preserve group harmony by suppressing dissenting opinions. B. sacrifice group cohesion so that members will focus on their task. C. enhance the number of ideas that group members can generate through brainstorming. D. increase misbehavior by reducing group members? sense of accountability. Under which of the following conditions is groupthink likely to occur? (B) A. Group members feel vulnerable to making a bad decision. B. Group members do not question the morality of their ideas. C. Group members with minority opinions are encouraged to voice them. D. Group members take into consideration evidence that opposes their viewpoint. The primary difference between compliance and conformity is the (D) A. ratio of positive to negative traits in the individual whose behavior is targeted. B. type of behavior that is being influenced by group members. C. number of group members trying to influence an individual?s behavior. D. degree of social pressure that people exert on each other. When a person?s behavior changes in response to direct social pressure, _____ occurs. (D) A. obedience B. persuasion C. conformity D. compliance Mia is not sure who to vote for in the upcoming student government elections. All her roommates tell her that Candidate X is the best choice, and that only people who do not care about student rights and lower tuition would vote against him. Mia casts her vote for Candidate X, thereby demonstrating (A) A. compliance. B. conformity. C. obedience. D. persuasion. Your friend asks you if he can borrow your hat because he thinks it looks fashionable, and you agree to this minor request. Later on, he asks if he can borrow your expensive leather jacket. If you agree to this larger request, then you have been influenced through the (D) A. not-so-free sample technique. B. that?s-not-all technique. C. door-in-the-face technique. D. foot-in-the-door technique. When a person is more likely to agree to a large request because he/she earlier agreed to a small request, then compliance has occurred through the (B) A. door-in-the-face technique. B. foot-in-the-door technique. C. not-so-free sample technique. D. that?s-not-all technique. Your friend asks you to drive her home for the holidays, a favor that would add three hours to your trip. You respond ?no,? that such a trip would be an inconvenience for you. She then asks if you would take her to the bus station that is thirty minutes away, and you agree. You have been influenced through the (A) A. door-in-the-face technique. B. foot-in-the-door technique. C. not-so-free sample technique. D. that?s-not-all technique. When a person is more likely to agree to a small request after having refused some larger request early on, then compliance has occurred through the (C) A. not-so-free sample technique. B. that?s-not-all technique. C. door-in-the-face technique. D. foot-in-the-door technique. Instead of advertising that the price of a new kitchen gadget is $13.00, a television spokesperson offers to sell you the gadget for $26.00?and she will send you a second gadget at no additional charge. You are so impressed by this deal that you call and order the gadget. You have been influenced by the (B) A. not-so-free sample technique. B. that?s-not-all technique. C. door-in-the-face technique. D. foot-in-the-door technique. When a person offers to sell an item at an inflated price but also offers some incentive or discount to make the offer more attractive, then she has used the (D) A. door-in-the-face technique. B. foot-in-the-door technique. C. not-so-free sample technique. D. that?s-not-all technique. As you are shopping in a department store, a salesperson offers to spray you with the latest fragrance. You agree, and now you feel obligated to reciprocate this nice deed. You leave the store with two new bottles of fragrance. Your behavior has been influenced by the (C) A. door-in-the-face technique. B. foot-in-the-door technique. C. not-so-free sample technique. D. that?s-not-all technique. Many shopping malls have a central area where food is sold. As you pass through this area, you will often encounter vendors who offer you a taste of their products (e.g., a bite of chicken, or a piece of pretzel). If you accept this food from a vendor, you may feel obligated to purchase a meal from his/her restaurant. This technique of social influence is known as the (A) A. not-so-free sample technique. B. that?s-not-all technique. C. door-in-the-face technique. D. foot-in-the-door technique. When a person induces compliance in others by offering them a free sample, hoping to obligate the person into making a larger purchase, he/she is using the (C) A. door-in-the-face technique. B. foot-in-the-door technique. C. not-so-free sample technique. D. that?s-not-all technique. The _____ relies on reciprocity to influence behavior, whereas the _____ relies on commitment to influence behavior. (D) A. door-in-the-face technique; that?s-not-all technique B. foot-in-the-door technique; door-in-the-face technique C. not-so-free sample technique; that?s-not-all technique D. not-so-free sample technique; foot-in-the-door technique When a person?s behavior changes as a result of the direct commands of others, _____ has occurred. (A) A. obedience B. conformity C. compliance D. persuasion Stanley Milgram described his obedience study to a group of psychiatrists and asked them to predict the number of participants who would obey and administer the strongest possible shocks. The majority of these psychiatrists predicted that ____ would fully obey. (A) A. 2% (or less) B. 15% C. 35% D. 65% Stanley Milgram made his obedience study compelling by having the learner complain of a heart condition, then scream and plead for release, and finally refuse to answer. As a result of this modification in the experiment, Milgram found that (A) A. a majority of participants fully obeyed the experimenter?s demands. B. participants were more reluctant to deliver initial shocks. C. the learner became more real and personal to the participants. D. a majority of the participants asked to be excused from the study once they reached 350 volts. Recall that teachers in Milgram?s obedience studies were told to give increasingly stronger shocks to a learner when he failed to remember words on a list. One reason that so many of them administered the highest possible level of shock may be because their behavior was influenced by the (B) A. door-in-the-face technique. B. foot-in-the-door technique. C. not-so-free sample technique. D. that?s-not-all technique. Recall that participants in Milgram?s obedience studies were told to give increasingly stronger shocks to the learner when he failed to remember words on a list. One reason that so many of them administered the highest possible level of shock may be because they (B) A. believed the learner was not actually being harmed. B. felt that they experimenter was ultimately responsible for any harm to the learner. C. possessed abnormal personality traits that made them sadistic. D. did not understand the task that they were supposed to perform. Studies by Solomon Asch and Stanley Milgram demonstrate that (A) A. the power of the situation is quite strong in shaping people?s behavior. B. people with deviant personalities should not participate in social psychological research. C. only weak people are susceptible to social influence. D. people can never be led to behave in ways that are contrary to their personal values. A generalized belief or expectation about social groups and their members is a (D) A. heuristic. B. self-fulfilling prophecy. C. prejudice. D. stereotype. Sam believes that all gay men act like women and are non-athletic. His beliefs represent (B) A. prejudice. B. stereotypes. C. algorithms. D. self-fulfilling prophecies. A positive or negative evaluation of social groups and their members is a (C) A. heuristic. B. self-fulfilling prophecy. C. prejudice. D. stereotype. Rachael wears a button on her jacket that reads, ?Black is Beautiful.? This slogan represents a positive (A) A. prejudice. B. stereotype. C. algorithm. D. stereotype vulnerability. Margaret believes that discriminating against African Americans is wrong and immoral. When speaking with friends, however, Margaret states that she might feel uncomfortable if one of her children dated an African American. Margaret?s statement reflects (B) A. old-fashioned racism. B. modern racism. C. racial stereotypes. D. stereotype vulnerability. _____ refers to the idea that because people have learned to hide prejudiced attitudes to avoid allegations of racism, they reveal their prejudice in more subtle and indirect ways. (D) A. Racial stereotypes B. Stereotype vulnerability C. Old-fashioned racism D. Modern racism The behavioral component of stereotypes is (D) A. racism. B. sexism. C. prejudice. D. discrimination. Which of the following examples best captures the concept of discrimination? (C) A. Dan becomes uncomfortable when a man sits too close to him. B. Mitch believes that women are seductive, manipulative, and untrustworthy. C. Arlene refuses to rent an apartment to a person from Iraq. D. Nicole has negative feelings toward people with AIDS. When expectations about the occurrence of a future behavior increase the likelihood that the behavior will occur, a(n) _______ is operating. (A) A. self-fulfilling prophecy B. stereotype vulnerability C. prejudice confirmation D. expectancy bias Organizational research by Bertrand and Mullainathan (2002) on the work experiences of African Americans suggests that (D) A. African Americans are systematically denied promotions for which they are qualified more often than European or Asian Americans. B. African American women experience significantly more workplace racism than African American men. C. People who work with African Americans report feeling more stress, anxiety, and discomfort than those who do not work with African Americans. D. People with stereotypically ?black? names are less likely to be contacted for job interviews than those with stereotypically ?white? names. If you believe that people acquire their prejudices by watching and imitating the attitudes and behaviors of important others in their lives, then you adopt the (D) A. resource competition approach. B. categorization approach. C. social identity approach. D. social learning approach. Research suggests that children begin to prefer members of their own race as early as the age of (B) A. 18 months. B. 3 years. C. 5 years. D. 7 years. Although some members view homosexuality negatively, Juliet believes that being a lesbian is a source of pride and self-esteem. Her belief is consistent with the (C) A. resource competition approach. B. categorization approach. C. social identity approach. D. social learning approach. Many members of the Ku Klux Klan believe that the Caucasian race is superior to all other racial groups. They believe that whites should dominate other groups, and they are very proud of being white. Such attitudes would be of particular interest to researchers who study (A) A. social identity. B. social learning. C. resource competition. D. categorization. Marlin notice that many convenience stores and hotels in his hometown are owned by East Indians. He concludes that East Indians are taking away American jobs. Marlin?s belief reflects research on the (B) A. categorization approach. B. resource competition approach. C. social identity approach. D. social learning approach. A professor walks into her classroom on the first day of the semester and immediately notes that the class can be understood in terms of two groups: men and women. This phenomenon would interest researchers who study (D) A. social identity. B. social learning. C. resource competition. D. categorization. According to research, which of the following techniques can be used to reduce prejudice and discrimination? (D) A. increasing contact among groups that have stereotypes of each other B. reminding people of their values of equality C. reducing stereotype vulnerability D. A, B, and C Under which of the following conditions will contact between two groups reduce the amount of prejudice and discrimination between them? (A) A. The contact situation promotes cooperation, and the individuals involved have roughly equal status. B. The individuals who are involved have similar backgrounds, and they are competing against each other to achieve a desired goal. C. The individuals in the contact situation have roughly equal status, and they can work independently to solve tasks. D. The individuals do not have similar backgrounds (there is diversity), and the contact situation involves a carefully regimented schedule. In Mandy?s school, it is believed that women are not intelligent enough to pursue scientific careers. When taking a science achievement test, Mandy worries that her performance will confirm the school?s stereotype, and this anxiety leads her to perform poorly on the test. Mandy has experienced (C) A. an expectancy bias. B. a confirmation bias. C. stereotype vulnerability. D. a panic attack. If you are interested in the factors that contribute to people?s positive feelings for others, then you would be most interested in research that focuses on (D) A. personality. B. social influence. C. social identity. D. interpersonal attraction. Hoonseok just joined a new elementary school, and his teacher wants to be sure that he makes many new friends. To accomplish this goal, the teacher should assign Hoonseok the desk that is (B) A. in the quietest area of the classroom. B. near the door of the classroom. C. near the window in the back of the classroom. D. larger than the desks of other students. Jennifer listens to the radio and within just a few hours, she hears the same song several times. Social psychologists would conclude that radio stations are trying to influence Jennifer?s attitude toward the song via (D) A. identification. B. operant conditioning. C. social learning. D. mere exposure. Which of the following statements about interpersonal attraction has been supported by research? (A) A. ?Birds of a feather flock together.? B. ?Opposites attract.? C. ?Absence makes the heart grow fonder.? D. ?People don?t judge books (people) by their cover (appearance).? Research on physical attractiveness tends to suggest that (C) A. the influence of physical attractiveness on interpersonal liking grows stronger as a relationship endures. B. the influence of physical attractiveness on interpersonal liking does not change over the life of a relationship. C. the influence of physical attractiveness on interpersonal liking grows weaker as a relationship endures. D. there is no statistically significant relationship between physical attractiveness and interpersonal liking. _____ love is a style that is defined by high physiological arousal, psychological interest, and concern for the needs of one?s partner. (A) A. Passionate B. Companionate C. Erotic D. Pragmatic Tiffanie and Courtney are best friends and roommates. They tell each other everything, and share many interests and hobbies. The love between Tiffanie and Courtney would best be described as (B) A. passionate. B. companionate. C. ludic. D. pragmatic. David and Darrell feel very close to each other, and they both feel that they share a deep connection. There are no emotional barriers in their relationship. According to Sternberg, David and Darrell?s relationship has strong (B) A. commitment. B. intimacy. C. passion. D. identification. Teresa and Mark have decided not to date other people as a sign of their love for each other. This means that they will not date other people in the interest of the long-term success of their relationship. According to Sternberg, Teresa and Mark?s relationship has strong (A) A. commitment. B. intimacy. C. passion. D. identification. Jason?s relationships with women are mostly sexual. He enjoys being physically close to women, and he often thinks of himself as a ?romantic.? According to Sternberg, Jason?s relationships have strong (C) A. commitment. B. intimacy. C. passion. D. identification. In mathematical terms, companionate love is the sum of (D) A. intimacy + commitment + passion. B. passion + commitment. C. intimacy + passion. D. intimacy + commitment. According to Robert Sternberg, infatuation is a love style that is strong on the _____ component. (B) A. commitment B. passion C. intimacy D. identification A woman places a personal ad in the newspaper so that she can find a romantic partner. She states that the most important characteristic of a potential romantic partner is mutual attraction. You might suspect that this woman is from (A) A. the United States. B. China. C. Zulu, South Africa. D. Thailand. A man places a personals ad in the newspaper so that he can find a romantic partner. He states that the most important characteristic of a potential romantic partner is emotional stability. You might suspect that this man has connections to (C) A. the United States. B. China. C. Zulu, South Africa. D. Thailand. One of the most important features of how social psychologists define aggression is the (C) A. degree of injury that a victim sustains. B. extent to which the victim deserved being a target of aggression. C. intention of the aggressor. D. remorse of the aggressor. Instinct theories suggest that aggression is (A) A. the result of innate urges and drives. B. the result of environmental factors. C. flexible and becomes less common as we age. D. inflexible and becomes more common as we age. Who among the following psychologists argued that there is an inborn aggressive drive? (C) A. Bandura B. Berkowitz C. Lorenz D. Dollard Joe plays football for his college. He looks forward to football practice so that he can release some of the aggressive energy that results from stressful days in class and fighting with his roommate. Psychologists refer to this release of aggressive energy as (D) A. desensitization. B. flooding. C. rationalization. D. catharsis. Carson and his father have a fight, and Carson storms out of the house angry. On his way to the car, Carson punches a chair that is sitting in the front yard. According to research by Bushman and colleagues, Carson will (C) A. experience no change in his levels of aggression. B. feel less aggressive than before. C. feel even more aggressive than before. D. later apologize to his father for punching the chair. Originally, frustration-aggression approaches stated that frustration leads directly to aggression. Later revisions suggested that frustration leads to ____, which in turn produces a readiness to act aggressively. (B) A. anxiety B. anger C. stress D. panic Celine stands in line for two hours to buy tickets for a concert given by her favorite band. When she reaches the ticket window, she is told that the tickets just sold out and that she will not be able to attend the concert. Celine yells at the ticket agent and slaps her hand against the window. Her aggressive behavior would be best explained by (D) A. pathology-aggression approaches. B. social learning approaches. C. instinct approaches. D. frustration-aggression approaches. If you believe that people acquire aggressive behavior by imitating other people who are reinforced for behaving aggressively, then you endorse (A) A. observational learning approaches. B. instinct approaches. C. frustration-aggression approaches. D. pathology-aggression approaches. A student slumps over in her seat during your psychology lecture. Though there are many people who notice the student, including you, no one goes to see if she is okay. You and your classmates have experienced (C) A. the pluralistic ignorance problem. B. the medical overload problem. C. diffusion of responsibility. D. antisocial behavior. Research suggests that there is _____ between the number of people who witness an emergency and the likelihood that a victim will be helped by these onlookers. (B) A. a positive relationship B. a negative relationship C. a weak relationship D. no relationship Which of the following examples best illustrates altruism? (A) A. Elsie contributes money to a local charity, knowing that she will be recognized in the newspaper for her generosity. B. Phillip pays for his date?s dinner, hoping that she will return the favor with sexual activity later on. C. Karen provides for her children?s needs each day, expecting that they will take care of her someday when she can no longer care for herself. D. John gives Martina $500 to pay for medication that she desperately needs, even though he knows that she will never be able to repay him. Such symptoms as self-condemnation and frustration may result when people consistently (B) A. express their anger. B. suppress their anger. C. vent their anger on innocent others. D. sublimate their anger.
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