Chapter 18 I. CHEMICAL TEXTURE SERVICES A. PERMANENTLY ALTER WAVE PATTERN 1. Curl straight hair . . . and add volume. 2. Straighten over curly hair . . . and smooth. 3. Soften coarse, straight hair . . . and make it more pliable and easier to work with. B. TYPES OF TEXTURE SERVICES 1. Permanent waving 2. Soft-curl permanents Also known as curl re-forming. 3. Chemical hair relaxing II. STRUCTURE OF HAIR CUTICLE The tough outer layer of the hair; surrounds the inner layers and protects hair from damage. 1. Strong compact cuticle Hair is resistant to penetration by chemicals and difficult to service. 2. Healthy cuticle A damaged cuticle is chipped and does not lay tight against the hair shaft. CORTEX Middle layer of hair located beneath cuticle. Responsible for hair strength and elasticity. Side bonds must be broken to change the natural wave pattern. MEDULLA Innermost layer of hair; often called pith or core; does not play a role in re-structuring the texture. Medulla is missing in some types of hair. pH AND TEXTURE pH means potential hydrogen and measures the acidity and alkalinity of a substance. The pH scale has a range from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral. The natural pH of hair is between 4.5 and 5.5. Chemical texturizers raise the pH of the hair to an alkaline state to soften and swell the hair shaft. E. BUILDING BLOCKS OF HAIR Amino acids Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. 2. Peptide bonds (end bonds) Link amino acids together in long chains. Polypeptide chains Formed by bonds that are linked together to form a polypeptide chain. Keratin proteins Long chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds or end bonds; they make up about 97% of hair?s structure. Side bonds (Disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds) cross-link polypeptide chains together. CAUTION: Polypeptide chains should NOT be broken as this will dramatically weaken the hair and cause breakage. Chemical hair texturizers must be used very carefully. SIDE BONDS Cortex is made of millions of polypeptide chains cross-linked by three types of side bonds, or cross bonds. Disulfide bonds Formed when sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together. Can only be broken by chemicals; account for about one-third of hair?s strength. 2. Salt bonds Relatively weak and result from an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges; easily broken by changes in pH; only broken by pH; account for about one-third of hair?s strength. Hydrogen bonds Similar to salt bonds but are easily broken by water or heat and re-form as hair dries or cools. Account for about one-third of hair?s strength. III. CLIENT CONSULTATION One of the most important steps in a successful texture service. A. CONSULTATION GUIDELINES 1. Introduce self; greet client by name. 2. Ask open-ended questions. Find out why client wants the texture service and what results are expected. 3. Review photos with client. Determine exactly what is wanted. 4. Ask about past texture services. Determine what client liked and didn?t like. 5. Ask about current style. Discuss changes that would result from a texture service. 6. Determine desired finished style. Consider the haircut and degree of texture or relaxing that is needed. 7. Evaluate condition, texture, and wave pattern of hair. 8. Fill out chemical service record. Document hair condition and desired outcome. 9. Perform metallic salt test. Home haircoloring products containing metallic salts are not compatible with chemical texture services. Perform metallic salt test to prevent damage. TEST: In glass or plastic bowl, mix 1 oz of 20 volume peroxide with 20 drops of 28% ammonia. Immerse at least 20 strands of hair in solution for 30 minutes. If metallic salts are not present, hair will lighten slightly and you may proceed. If metallic salts are present, hair will lighten rapidly and solution may get hot and emit an unpleasant odor. Do not proceed with service. B. CLIENT RECORDS 1. Include a complete hair analysis. 2. Record previous problems or adverse reactions. 3. Record service details. Type of product used, type and size of perm tools used, base direction, base control, wrapping technique, wrapping pattern, processing time, and results achieved. 4. Update records with each service. C. CLIENT RELEASE FORM 1. Signed prior to a service. 2. May or may not release school or salon from responsibility. 3. Indicates that client knew there was a possibility of damage to hair, etc. D. SCALP ANALYSIS Look for cuts, scratches, or open sores; do not proceed with service if skin abrasions or scalp disease are present. Refer to physician. HAIR ANALYSIS Hair is the fastest growing appendage of the human body. Hair is affected by diet, exercises, medications, and stress. 1. Five most important factors: a. Texture b. Density c. Porosity d. Elasticity e. Growth direction HAIR TEXTURE Describes the diameter of a single strand of hair and is classified as fine, medium, or coarse. Coarse hair Usually requires more processing time; may be resistant; more difficult to penetrate. Medium hair Most common; considered normal and does not pose any special problems. Fine hair More fragile; easier to process; more susceptible to damage; generally will process faster and more easily than medium or coarse hair. HAIR DENSITY Measures the number of strands of hair on the head per square inch; indicates how thick or thin hair is. HAIR POROSITY Ability of the hair to absorb moisture; directly relates to condition of cuticle layer; classified as resistant, normal, or porous. Resistant hair Has tight, compact cuticle layer that resists penetration; requires a more alkaline solution; requires a slow and thorough application of perm solution. Normal hair Neither resistant nor overly porous; texture services usually process as expected. Porous hair Has a raised cuticle and easily absorbs solution; requires less alkaline solution; a lower pH minimizes swelling and helps prevent damage to hair. HAIR ELASTICITY The ability of the hair to stretch and return to normal shape without breaking. Indicates the strength of the side bonds that hold individual fibers in place. Determines the hair?s ability to hold a curl; classified as normal or low. Normal elasticity Wet hair can stretch up to 50% of its original length and then return to that same length without breaking. Low elasticity This hair does not return to its original length when stretched; DIRECTION OF HAIR GROWTH Direction of hair growth causes hair streams, whorls, and cowlicks that influence finished styles and should be considered when selecting the base direction and waving pattern for a permanent wave. IV. PERMANENT WAVING This is a two-step process; The first part is the physical change caused by wrapping the hair on rods. The second part involves the chemical change caused by the waving solution and neutralizer. A. THE PERM WRAP 1. Size, shape, and type of curl. Determined by size, shape, and type of tool used for wrapping. 2. Perm solution softens hair. This allows hair to conform to the shape after wrapping. 3. Tension produces the curl. Too much tension can mark or break the hair; keep hair wet and wrap with uniform, even tension. B. PERM TOOLS Come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes and can be combined with different wrapping methods to produce a wide range of results. C. ROD TYPES 1. Concave rods: Most common; usually used with croquignole wraps; they have a smaller circumference in center and larger circumference on ends; produce a tighter curl in center and a looser, larger curl on either side of strand. 2. Straight rods: Usually used with croquignole wraps; equal in circumference along entire length of rod or curling area; produce a uniform curl along entire width of strand. 3. Long rods Length of rod determines base section. 4. Short rods Fit closer to the rounded curvature of the head; used for wrapping small and awkward sections where long rods will not fit. D. SOFT BENDER RODS Usually about 12" long with a uniform diameter along entire length. They are soft foam rods with a stiff inner wire that allows them to take on a variety of shapes. They can be used with a croquignole or spiral technique. E. LOOP OR CIRCLE RODS: Usually about 12" long with a uniform diameter; ideal for wrapping extremely long hair; when fastened together, they form a circle. F. END PAPERS: Also known as end wraps. They are absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping. When wrapping, papers should extend beyond ends of hair to prevent ?fishhooks.? 1. Double flat wrap: Uses two ends papers, one placed under and one over PAGE PAGE 10
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