Skin Diseases Aging of the skin The sun Then environment Health habits General lifestyle Cigarette smoking has been linked to premature aging and wrinkling. The sun and its effects 80-85% of aging caused by sunrays Collagen and elastin fibers weaken when exposed to ultraviolet rays without protection. UVA ? ?aging rays? constitute of 90% - 95% of sun rays. UVB ? ?burning rays? cause tanning. Don?t penetrate as deep as UVA but do contribute to the body?s synthesis of vitamin D. Cancer Check List A ? Asymmetry B ? Border C ? Color D ? Diameter E ? Evolving When checking moles look for any changes in these areas Skin aging and the environment Pollutants from factories Emissions from automobiles Secondhand smoke Defense against environment Good daily skin care routine Wash and exfoliate Moisturize, protective lotion. Aging and lifestyle Smoking ? causes cancer and premature aging. Drinking ? dilates blood vessels and capillaries, dehydrates the skin Taking drugs ? some can interfere with the body?s intake of oxygen; can aggravate skin conditions, cause dryness, and allergic reactions. Telangiectasias ? Dialated capillaries. Skin disorders Lesions of the skin Structural change in tissue caused by injury or disease 3 types Primary Bullae ? blister containing a watery fluid (similar to a vesicle, but larger) Cyst ? semi solid, or fluid lump above and below the skin Macula ? small discolored spot or patch on the surface of the skin (freckles) Papule ? small, elevated pimple contains no fluid, but could develop pus. Pustule ? elevation of skin having an inflamed base and pus Tubercle ? solid lump larger than a papule, projects above surface, or within surface of skin, varies in size. Tumor ? abnormal cell mass varies in size, shape, and color. Vesicle ? blister with clear fluid, lies within or just below surface (poison oak) Wheal ? itchy, swollen lesion lasting only a few hours (hives, insect bites) Secondary Crust ? accumulation of sebum and pus mixed with epidermal material (scab) Excoriation ? skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping Fissure ? crack in skin penetrating into the dermis (chapped lips) Keloid ? thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue. Scale ? accumulation of epidermal flakes, dry or greasy (dandruff) Scar ? formed after healing of injury or skin condition that has penetrated the dermal layer Ulcer ? open lesion on skin accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth. Tertiary As a cosmetologist we only concern ourselves with primary and secondary. Disorders of the Sebaceous (oil) Glands Comedones ? follicle filled with keratin and sebum. When sebum is exposed and oxides it turns black (blackhead). When follicle is closed and not exposed it remains white. Milia ? begin keratin-filled cyst that lie just under the epidermis. Acne ? chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions. Also called acne simplex or acne vu Seborrhea dermatitis ? excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands. Asteatosis ? dry, scaly skin, absolute or partial deficiency of sebum, due to senility or some bodily disorder. Rosacea ? chronic inflammatory congestion of cheeks and nose. Redness, dilation of blood vessels, and formation of papules and pustules. Steatoma ? sebaceous cyst or fatty tumor filled with sebum, rang4es in size from a pea ? orange. Sometimes called a Wen. Disorders of Soporiferous glands Anhidrosis ? lack of perspiration Bromhidrosis (osmidrosis) ? foul smelling perspiration. Hyperhidrosis ? excessive perspiration caused by heat or body weakness. Miliaria rubra (prickly heat) ? acute inflammatory disorder. Eruptions of small red vesicles with burning and itching: caused by exposure to excessive heat. Inflammations of the skin Dermatitis ? inflammatory condition of the skin with lesions. Eczema ? skin inflammation of acute or chronic nature, many forms with dry or moist lesions, with itching or burning. Herpes Simplex ? Recurring virus infection (fever blisters). Eruption of single vesicle or group of vesicles on a red swollen base. It is contagious. Psoriasis ? common, chronic inflammatory disease, cause unknown; found on scalp, elbows, knees, chest and lower back, rarely on face. Ocupational Disorders Dermatitis Venaenata ? Eruptive skin infections resulting from allergies. Sensitization ? increased or exaggerated sensitivity to products. Irritant Contact Dermatitis ? irritating substances will temporarily damage the epidermis. Pigmentations of the skin Albinism ? absence of melanin pigment ? including the skin, hair and eyes. Chloasma ? increased pigmentation on spots not elevated (liver spots). Lentigines ? freckles Leutoderma ? light abnormal patches, caused by a burn or congenital disease that destroys melanin. Classified as Vitiligo and Albinism. Nevus ? Birthmark Stain ? abnormal brown or whine-colored skin with a circular or irregular shape. Tan ? change in pigmentation caused by exposure to the sun. Vitiligo ? milky white spots ? hereditary ? possibly related to thyroid, must be protected from the sun. Hypertrophies of the skin Hypertrophy ? abnormal growth of the skin. Many are benign or harmless. Karatoma ? (callus) ? caused by pressure or friction on the hands and feet. If the thickening grows inward it is a corn. Mole ? small, brownish spot ranging in color from pale tan, brown to bluish black. Skin tag ? small brown or flesh-colored outgrowth of the skin. Occur frequently on the neck of an older person. Easily removed by a dermatologist Verruca ? Technical term for a ward; caused by a virus and can spread from one location to another. Skin Cancer Three forms Basal sell carcinoma ? most common and least severe. Squamous cell carcinoma ? more serious, with red papules or nodules Malignant melanoma ? most serious form with brown to black patches that pay appear uneven, jagged or raised.
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