Chapter 22: Asia Japan Supreme Command of the Allied Powers (SCAP) Allies countries govern Japan after WWII new Constitution, Diet, Economic Growth, Decentralization Douglas MacArthur heads it, becomes a U.S. Enterprise goals: Demilitarize and Democratize Article Nine part of Japanese constitution strips Japan of military, only defense demilitarize, instead US protects Japan allows Japan to focus economically Ministry of International Trade and Industry government corporation work together to promote economic growth focus spending on capitalist supply and dem and, promote high-quality electronics, autos, etc. US angry that Japanese not buying US cars, and that US is only buying Japanese cars Japan is a creditor nation, and invests in others Liberal Democratic Party conservative, pro business stable and trusted, single party at first _ China Mao Zedong Communist Party, leader of People ' s Republic of China says equality, but still is totalitarian 5 Year Plans- heavy industry and agriculture, government control economy, cooperatives Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution Great Leap Forward create gov. controlled communes that farmers work for stressed human labor, every person should work something failure at its biggest Cultural Revolution Pragmatists vs. Radicals Mao is radical so is wife, Jiang Jing, and used propaganda, Red Guard, and opposition crackdowns Deng Xiaoping Pragmatist that is willing to learn from capitalism new direction, modern China The Four Modernizations agriculture- family owned individual plots, some to gov. some for self industry- still gov. control, but encourage supply and demand freedom Special Economic Zones (SEP)- foreign invest in places also science and defense increase social gap Tienanmen Square Massacre people want political freedom, gov. sends in military and people die hurts government look Korea Export-led Growth pick one product to get good at making, and export a lot of it import the rest actually after time, you are replacing those imports with your exports, so its really import subs. Containment US policy, hold down Communism where it is When Korean War breaks out, they want to hold Communism back so it can ' t spread US thinks that Communism is a huge wave from USSR, in reality, very divided Rollback new US policy, push out Communism everywhere inspired by MacArthur who wants to get rid of Communist NK and China triggers Chinese invasion of Korea Yalu River border of NK and China MacArthur ' s forced neared it, but when they say they might pass over it into China, China responds by invading and pushing back to 38 th Parallel Kim Il Sung ?Great Leader? during Korean War, very repressive and isolates NK starts Korean War when he hears that US isn ' t protecting SK anymore, wants unity Communist stuff he does, slow growth compared to SK Roh Tae Woo South Korea ' s president, after Syngman Rhee shows democracy was growing in SK, and that all was good and well Vietnam Ho Chi Minh leader of Vietminh opposition to French rule Nationalist leader, wins at Dien Bien Phu lives throughout whole conflict, and is a trusted communist leader Vietminh defeat French rule at Dien Bien Phu gets U.S. During WWII, but gets opposition during Cold War just a nationalist coalition, not necessarily Communist entirely Dien Bien Phu Vietminh beat French and take out their morale there Tet Offensive Viet Cong launch huge attack that destroyed US morale and support was turning point that took Johnson out of office, and put Nixon in Ngo Dinh Diem South Vietnam ' s leader, after split on 17 th Parallel, US puts him in he doesn ' t allow elections to happen in all of Vietnam, fears he will be thrown out of power People hate him, but resist at first to wait out transition period, but never comes So US supports his coup out (JFK) India Jawaharlal Nehru Indira Gandhi Non-aligned Bangladesh Pakistan SEA Australia New Zealand ANZUS Khmer Rouge Aung San Sui Kyi Corazon Aquino Singapore Lee Kuan Yew ASEAN
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