PSY 2012 Textbook Questions Pool Chapter 2: Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature Which of the following is true about neurons? There are only about 15 basic neuron types. Human neurons die only when you are very old. The total number of neurons remains relatively constant once we reach adulthood. Each type of neuron has its own distinct parts. Humans lost approximately 100 neurons per day. Behavior consistently found in a species is likely to have a genetic basis that evolved because the behavior has been adaptive. Which of the following human behaviors illustrate this concept? driving a car sending astronauts to the moon Down syndrome language Darwin?s theory of _______________ argues that evolution favors those organisms that are best adapted to their environment. encephalization bipedalism specialization natural selection creationism Darwin?s theory of evolution suggests that the only measure of success for a species is: being the largest of the species. not competing with members of the same species. possessing the best coloring and shape of the species. the passing of genes along to succeeding generations. the uniqueness of the species. In purely evolutionary terms, which one would be a measure of your own success as an organism? Your intellectual accomplishments The length of your life The number of children you have The contributions you made to the happiness of humanity Genes are composed of smaller molecular units called chromosomes. peptides. nucleotides. genotypes. phenotypes. Schizophrenia, a severe mental disorder, is thought to involve more than one chromosome. a single chromosome a single gene. the deletion of genes from the 22nd chromosome. some missing chromosomes. A key goal of the Human Genome Project is to determine the complete human genetic code. create new genetic material in scientific laboratories. figure out how to destroy dangerous genetic material. uncover the causes of each person?s genetic makeup. examine the degree of genetic similarity between humans and other animals. Which of the following is true about interneurons? Interneurons form simple circuits in the brain. There are 200,000 of them for every motor neuron. They are only found in the peripheral nervous system. They are not found in the brain and spinal cord. They relay messages between nerve cells. Peter suffers damage to his left frontal lobe and loses the ability to speak, although he can still understand speech. Despite the permanence of this damage, he is able to recover some of his speech due to the ability of other parts of the brain to take over lost function. This phenomenon is known by neuroscientists as flexibility. adaptiveness. plasticity. compensation. homeostasis. ____________ are specialized support cells for neurons. Interneurons Sensory neurons Glial Myelin sheaths Axons Multiple sclerosis is a disease that involves the degeneration of the dendrites. soma, or cell body. axon. myelin sheath. terminal buttons. Your ability to smell pizza in the oven and to then remove and eat that pizza is due to the activity of a) the parietal lobe of your brain. b) the occipital lobe of your brain. c) the autonomic nervous system. d) the parasympathetic nervous system. e) the somatic nervous system. 14. Which of the following is controlled by the autonomic nervous system? a) Respiration b) Reasoning c) Reading d) Reaching e) Running 15. Secretions from the thyroid gland control a) breast milk excretion. b) sperm production. c) stress reaction. d) metabolism. e) uterine contractions. 16. Which scanning method produces a computerized image of X-rays that have been passed through the brain at various angles? a) PET scanning b) CT scanning c) MRI scanning d) Psychosurgery e) Neurosurgery 17. In the ____________procedure, a composite picture of neuron activity is produced by detecting atomic particles emitted by a radioactive glucose. a) PET b) CT c) MRI d) EEG e) fMRI 18. The scanning device that makes highly detailed pictures from tissue responses to powerful pulses of energy is the a) CT. b) PET. c) MRI. d) EEG. e) RAS. 19. This brain-stem structure regulates brain activity during sleep. a) The pons b) Amygdala c) Thalamus d) Pituitary gland e) Hippocampus 20. A person whose hippocampus is damaged will be unable to a) eat normally. b) attend college. c) control their emotions. d) reason and plan for the future. e) perform smooth movements 21. The ________ is involved in the regulation of feeding, drinking, and sexual behavior. a) hippocampus b) amygdala c) hypothalamus d) thalamus e) medulla 22. The ____________ is that part of the limbic system that maintains homeostasis, the body?s internal balance or equilibrium. a) cerebellum b) reticular formation c) hypothalamus d) spinal cord e) hippocampus 23. Which body structure was altered during the process of evolution which resulted in higher levels of cognitive functioning for humans? a) cerebral cortex b) cerebellum c) hypothalamus d) amygdala e) adrenal cortex 24. The _______________ of the brain accounts for two-thirds of the brain?s total mass. a) frontal lobes b) cerebral cortex c) corpus callosum d) hypothalamus e) limbic system 25. Damage to the _______________ is the most likely explanation for a brain injury that has devastating effects on human action and personality. a) central fissure b) frontal lobes c) lateral fissure d) parietal cortex e) temporal lobes 26. The action of grabbing your keys with your right hand is controlled by your a) right somatosensory cortex. b) left motor cortex. c) association cortex. d) frontal lobes. e) right motor cortex. 27. The ___________ cortex is most likely involved in making a decision as to whether we want to ask an attractive person out for a date. a) auditory b) parietal c) somatosensory d) association e) motor 28. _____________________ concluded that language ability depended on the functioning of structures in a specific region of the left hemisphere. a) Rene Descartes b) Paul Broca c) Phineas Gage d) Charles Darwin e) Roger Sperry 29. Spatial orientation appears to be a function of the brain?s ______________ hemisphere. a) right b) left c) visual d) temporal e) central 30. ___________________ refers to the tendency for each hemisphere of the brain to take control of different functions. a) Neurotransmission b) Homeostasis c) Cortical dominance d) Cerebral dominance e) Spatial orientation
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