Models of Abnormality Chapter 2 Handouts Models of Abnormality In science, the perspectives used to explain events are known as models or paradigms Each spells out ___________________, ___________________, and sets guidelines for investigation Models influence what investigators observe, ________________________, the information they seek, and how they interpret this information Models of Abnormality Until recently, clinical scientists of a given place and time tended to agree on a single model of abnormality ? a model greatly influenced by _______________ Today, several models are used to explain and treat abnormal functioning Each model focuses mainly on one aspect of human functioning and none can explain all aspects of abnormality The Biological Model Adopts a ___________ perspective Main focus is that abnormal behavior is an illness brought about by ______________________________ Typically focused on the _______________ How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? Brain anatomy The brain is composed of ~100 billion nerve cells (called _________ ) and thousands of billions of support cells (called _________ ) Within the brain, large groups of neurons form distinct areas called brain _________ How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? Brain anatomy and abnormal behavior Clinical researchers have discovered connections between certain psychological disorders and problems in specific brain areas Example: Huntington?s disease and basal ganglia (forebrain) How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? Brain chemistry Information is communicated throughout the brain in the form of _______________ that travel from one neuron to one or more others An impulse first is received at a neuron?s ____________, travels down the ____________, and is transmitted through the nerve ____________ to the dendrites of other neurons * How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? Brain chemistry Neurons do not actually touch each other; they are separated by a space (the ____________), across which a message moves When an electrical impulse reaches a nerve ending, the ending is stimulated to release a chemical called a ____________________ (NT), that travels across the synaptic space to _____________ on the dendrites of neighboring neurons Some NTs tell receiving neurons to ?fire;? other NTs tell receiving neurons to stop firing How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? Brain chemistry and abnormal behavior Researchers have identified dozens of NTs and have learned that each neuron uses only certain kinds Examples: serotonin, dopamine, GABA Studies indicate that abnormal activity by certain NTs can lead to specific mental disorders Examples: depression (serotonin and norepinephrine) and anxiety (GABA) How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? Brain chemistry and abnormal behavior Additionally, researchers have learned that mental disorders are sometimes related to abnormal chemical activity in the endocrine system Endocrine glands release hormones which propel body organs into action. Abnormal secretions have been linked to psychological disorders Example: Cortisol release is related to anxiety and mood disorders How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? Sources of biological abnormalities ? ___________ Each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes, each with numerous genes that control the characteristics and traits a person inherits Studies suggest that inheritance plays a part in mood disorders, schizophrenia, and other mental disorders Researchers hope eventually to be able to prevent or change genes that help cause medical or psychological disorders How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? Sources of biological abnormalities ? evolution Genes that contribute to mental disorders typically are viewed as unfortunate occurrences (e.g., mutations) Evolutionary theorists argue that they are, instead, the result of normal evolutionary principles: Genes responsible for human reactions survived because they helped individuals thrive and adapt (e.g., fear) In modern times, however, the very genes that allowed for survival and reproduction might now leave individuals particularly prone to fear reactions, and anxiety and other disorders This perspective is controversial and has been rejected by many theorists; it requires leaps of faith that many scientists find unacceptable How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? Sources of biological abnormalities ? viral infections Another possible source of abnormal brain structure or biochemical dysfunction is viral infection Example: schizophrenia and prenatal viral exposure Interest in viral explanations of psychological disorders has been growing in the past decade Example: anxiety and mood disorders Biological Treatments Biological practitioners attempt to pinpoint the physical _________ of dysfunction to determine the course of treatment Three types of biological treatment: Drug therapy Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Psychosurgery Biological Treatments Drug therapy: 1950s = Discovery of psychotropic medications Greatly changed outlook for a number of mental disorders Four major drug groups: Antianxiety drugs (anxiolytics; tranquilizers) Antidepressant drugs Antibipolar drugs (mood stabilizers) Antipsychotic drugs Biological Treatments Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): This treatment is used on tens of thousands of depressed persons annually Used primarily for depression when drugs and other therapies have failed Biological Treatments Psychosurgery (or neurosurgery): Historical roots in ______________ 1930s = first lobotomy Much more precise than in the past Considered experimental and used only in extreme cases Assessing the Biological Model Strengths: Enjoys considerable respect in the field Constantly produces valuable new information ________________ Weaknesses: Can limit, rather than enhance, our understanding ________________ Treatments produce significant _________ * The Psychodynamic Model Oldest and most famous psychological model Based on belief that a person?s behavior (whether normal or abnormal) is determined largely by underlying _______________ psychological forces _________________________ Abnormal symptoms are the result of conflict among these forces Father of psychodynamic theory and psychoanalytic therapy: __________________ (1856?1939) How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning? Shaped by three ______________ forces: 1. Id ? guided by the ______________ Principle Instinctual needs, drives, and impulses Sexual; fueled by libido (sexual energy) 2. Ego ? guided by the ______________ Principle Seeks gratification, but guides us to know when we can and cannot express our wishes Ego defense mechanisms protect us from anxiety * How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning? Caused by three UNCONSCIOUS forces: Superego ? guided by the ____________ Principle Conscience; unconsciously adopted from our parents These three parts of the personality are often in some degree of conflict A healthy personality is one in which compromise exists among the three forces If the id, ego, and superego are in excessive conflict, the person?s behavior may show signs of dysfunction How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning? Developmental stages Freud proposed that at each stage of development, new events require adjustment of the id, ego, and superego If successful ? personal growth If unsuccessful ? fixation at an early developmental stage, leading to psychological abnormality Because parents are the key figures in early life, they are often seen as the cause of improper development How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning? Developmental stages Oral (0 to 18 months of age) Anal (18 months to 3 years of age) Phallic (3 to 5 years of age) Latency (5 to 12 years of age) Genital (12 years of age to adulthood) How Do Other Psychodynamic Explanations Differ from Freud?s? Although new theories depart from Freud?s ideas in important ways, each holds on to the belief that human functioning is shaped by dynamic (interacting) psychological forces: Ego theorists Emphasize the role of the ego; consider it independent Self theorists Emphasize the unified personality Object-relations theorists Emphasize the human need for relationships with others; importance of the relationship between children and their caregivers Psychodynamic Therapies Range from Freudian psychoanalysis to modern therapies All seek to uncover past trauma and inner conflicts Therapist acts as a ?______________? Psychodynamic Therapies Utilize various techniques: Free association Therapist interpretation Resistance Transference Dream interpretation Catharsis Working through Psychodynamic Therapies Contemporary trends: Short-term psychodynamic therapies Relational psychoanalytic therapy Assessing the Psychodynamic Model Strengths: First to recognize importance of psychological theories and treatment Saw psychological conflict as important source of psychological health and abnormality First to demonstrate the potential of psychological treatment - monumental impact on the field Weaknesses: Unsupported ideas; ________________ Non-observable Inaccessible to human subject (unconscious) Rely on __________ * The Behavioral Model Like psychodynamic theorists, behavioral theorists believe that our actions are determined largely by our experiences in life Concentrates wholly on behaviors and environmental factors Bases explanations and treatments on __________________________ The Behavioral Model The model began in laboratories where conditioning studies were conducted Several forms of conditioning: Operant conditioning Modeling Classical conditioning Each may produce __________________ behavior How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? Operant conditioning Humans and animals learn to behave in certain ways as a result of receiving rewards whenever they do so How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? Modeling Individuals learn responses by _________ _________________________ behavior How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? Classical conditioning Learning by __________________ When two events repeatedly occur close together in time, they become fused in a person?s mind; before long, the person responds in the same way to both events Father of classical conditioning: ______________ (1849?1936) Classic study using dogs and meat powder Explains many familiar behaviors (both normal and abnormal) Classical Conditioning UR Salivate UR Salivate US Meat Tone CS Tone CR Salivate US Meat + Behavioral Therapies Aim to identify the behaviors that are causing problems and replace them with more appropriate ones May use classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or modeling Therapist is ?__________? rather than healer Behavioral Therapies Classical conditioning treatments may be used to change abnormal reactions to particular stimuli Example: _______________________ for phobia Step-by-step procedure Learn relaxation skills Construct a fear hierarchy Confront feared situations Assessing the Behavioral Model Strengths: Powerful force in the field Can be tested in the laboratory ________________ ________________ Weaknesses: ______________ Behavior therapy is limited Downplays role of ________________ New focus on self-efficacy, social cognition, and cognitive-behavioral theories * * The Cognitive Model Seeks to understand human thought in order to understand human behavior Argues that clinicians must ask question about assumptions, attitudes, and thoughts of a client How Do Cognitive Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? ______________ are the cause of abnormal ______________ Several kinds of faulty thinking: Faulty assumptions and attitudes Illogical thinking processes Example: ___________________ Cognitive Therapies People can develop a new way of thinking to overcome their problems Main model: Beck?s Cognitive Therapy The goal of therapy is to help clients ______________ and ______________ their thinking Therapists also guide clients to challenge their dysfunctional thoughts, try out new interpretations, and apply new ways of thinking in their daily lives Widely used in treating depression Assessing the Cognitive Model Strengths: Very broad appeal ________________ Focuses on a uniquely human process Theories lend themselves to research Therapies effective in treating several disorders Weaknesses: ________________________________________________ Limited effectiveness ________________ The Humanistic-Existential Model Combination model The humanist view Emphasis on people as friendly, cooperative, and constructive; focus on drive to self-actualization The existentialist view Emphasis on self-determination, choice, and individual responsibility; focus on authenticity Rogers?s Humanistic Theory and Therapy Believes in the basic human need for _________________ If received, leads to unconditional self-regard If not, leads to ?conditions of worth? Incapable of self-actualization because of distortion ? do not know what they really need, etc. Rogers?s Humanistic Theory and Therapy Rogers?s ?_________________? therapy Therapist creates a supportive climate Unconditional positive regard Accurate empathy Genuineness Little research support * Gestalt Theory and Therapy Humanistic approach Developed by Fritz Perls Goal is to guide clients toward self-recognition through challenge and frustration Techniques: Skillful frustration Role playing Rules, including ?Here and Now? and ?I? language Spiritual Views and Interventions The historical alienation between the clinical field and religion seems to be ending Researchers have learned that spirituality can, in fact, be of psychological benefit to people Many therapists now make a point of including spiritual issues when they treat religious clients Existential Theories and Therapy Believe that psychological dysfunction is caused by self-deception; people hide from life?s responsibilities and fail to recognize that it is up to them to give meaning to their lives In therapy, people are encouraged to accept personal responsibility for their problems Goals more important than technique Great emphasis placed on client-therapist relationship Assessing the Humanistic-Existential Model Strengths: Taps into domains missing from other theories Emphasizes the individual ________________ Emphasizes health Weaknesses: ________________ Difficult to research Not much influence Weakened by ________________________________ Changing somewhat The Sociocultural Models Argue that abnormal behavior is best understood in light of the social and cultural forces that influence an individual Address norms and roles in society Argue that we must examine a person?s social surroundings to understand his or her (abnormal) behavior Include two major perspectives? How Do Family-Social Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? Focus on: Social labels and roles Diagnostic labels (example: Rosenhan study) Social networks and supports How Do Family-Social Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? Focus on: Family structure and communication Family systems theory argues that abnormal functioning (especially in structure and communication) within a family leads to abnormal behavior (insane behavior becomes sane in an insane environment) Examples: enmeshed, disengaged structures Family-Social Treatments This perspective has helped spur the growth of several treatment approaches, including: Group therapy Family therapy Couple therapy Community treatment Includes prevention work How Do Multicultural Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? Culture refers to the set of values, attitudes, beliefs, history, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to the next The multicultural perspective has emerged as a growing field of study Multicultural psychologists seek to understand how culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors affect behavior and thought, as well as how people of different cultures, races, and genders differ psychologically How Do Multicultural Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? Researchers have learned that psychological abnormality is more common among poorer people than among wealthier people They also have noticed that the prejudice and discrimination faced by many minority groups may contribute to certain forms of abnormal functioning Multicultural researchers also study differences that occur across countries as well as within countries Multicultural Treatments Studies have found that members of ethnic and racial minority groups tend to show less improvement in clinical treatment than members of majority groups Two features of treatment can increase a therapist?s effectiveness with minority clients: Greater sensitivity to cultural issues Inclusion of cultural models in treatment, especially in therapies for children and adolescents Multicultural Treatments Given such findings, some clinicians have developed culture-sensitive and gender-sensitive therapies Assessing the Sociocultural Models Strengths: Added greatly to ________________________________ Increased awareness of labeling and social roles Clinically successful when other treatments have failed Weaknesses: Research is difficult to interpret Correlation ? causation Model unable to predict abnormality in ________________________________ Integration of the Models Each perspective is valuable to understanding abnormal behavior Different perspectives are more appropriate under differing conditions An integrative approach provides a general framework for thinking about abnormal behavior, and also allows for specification of the factors that are especially pertinent to particular disorders Integration of the Models Many theorists, clinicians, and practitioners adhere to a _________________ model: Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, and societal influences Also popular: ______________________________ Diathesis = predisposition (bio, psycho, or social) Integration of the Models Integrative therapists are often called ?_______________? ? taking the strengths from each model and using them in combination
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