American Life in the 17th Century The Unhealthy Chesapeake Short life expectancy Disease: malaraia, dysentery, typhoid Few women, only single young men Native borns acquire immunity and more women come Tobacco Economy 1630s-1700- 1.5 million lbs. to 40 million lbs Depress wages, BUT still grow more @ 1st use indentured servants Headright system- encourage growth Rich get 50 acres if pay for indentured servants Harsh life and owners unwilling to let go Frusterated Freemen and Bacon?s Rebellion Late 1600s- frusterated young men Lack of $, women, land, work 1676 Nate Bacon led 1,000s in rebellion Against Gov. Berkely?s friendly Indian policy Attack Indian villages, torch Jamestown, run out Berkely Bacon dies---Berkely end rebellion Owners begin distrust servants----look to African slaves Colonial Slavery @ 1st only 400,000/10 milliion went to North America 1680s- owners distrust indentured servants Royal African Co.- lost monopoly b/c growing competition Most slaves come from West Coast Slaves were allowed to gain freedom @ 1st 20% die on Middle Passage Slave Codes- slaves property to masters Africans in America Deep South rice harsher than NE tobacco Mix of African and American culture Gullah, jazz, banjo Few skilled artisians (highly prized) Revolts NY Slave Revolt (1712)- 12 whites, 21 blacks killed SC Slave Revolt (1739)- try to march along Stono River to FL Southern Society Wide Social Gap Great Planters- political power and own lot of land slaves Small Farmers (largest group)- modest land Landless whites Indentured servants Slaves Few cities- slow develop schools New England Family Clean water and cool temperatures= less disease Migrate as families (lot of children) South women have more power, NE women less Marriage very serious and strict Life in NE Towns Tight knit- small villages and farms Very organized and orderly Towns charter by colonial authorities Meeting house surround by homes Population over 50 require elementary education 1st college- Harvard Puritan ran church and democracy in Congregational church Half-way Covenant and Salem With Trials Religious zeal from 16th to 17th c. declining Jeremiads- scold for waning piety Half-Way Covenant (1662) Allow all people (not just visible saints) ½ way convert- dilute process 1690s- Salem girls claim bewitched 20 executions and end 1693 New England Way of Life Unfertile land---great traders Extreme temperatures=disciplined people, not many slaves Condemn Indians under using land Introduce livestock- pasture lands needed Early Settler?s Days and Ways Work dawn to dusk Women indoor, men outdoor Most immigrants lower middle class Resentment toward upper class Leisler? Rebellion (NYC): merchant animosity to aristocracy Makers of America: African Brought new food, language, music 1st slaves men could gain freedom 1740 large groups live on plantations (included women) Convert to Christianity
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