Chapter 5 Mark test ? putting a mark on an individual (animal, toddler, etc.) and seeing if they notice their altered appearance. (Can recognize what they look like and notices something different) Ross & Rachel- reason attitude change. In the process of making a decision you can actually influence your feelings. Making a list can actually be counterproductive to what we actually want. The Nature of Self Who are we? Self concept, self awareness Animals can actually be self aware (recognize themselves in a mirror) Studies suggest that chimps and orangutans, and possibly dolphins, have a rudimentary self-concept. They realize that the image in the mirror is themselves and not another animal, and when someone alters their appearance, they recognize that they look different from how they looked before. Self-recognition comes around age 2 As we grow older, this rudimentary self-concept becomes more complex Typically, a child?s self-concept is concrete, with references to clear-cut, easily observable characteristics like age, sex, neighborhood, and hobbies. As we mature, we place less emphasis on physical characteristics and more on psychological stats (our thoughts and feelings) and how other people judge us. Ex: Best car= Best guy Functions of the Self Why do human adults have such a multifaceted, complex definition of self? Researchers Organizational Function of the Self S elf-Schemas : Mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, think about, and remember about themselves. Self-Reference Effect : The tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves. Self control is a self regulatory behavior. We only have so much mental energy Cultural Differences in Defining the Self In many Western cultures, people have an independent view of the self. Gender Differences in Defining the Self Starting in early childhood, American girls are more likely to: Develop intimate friendships When considering gender differences such Psychological differences in men and women are far fewer than they are the same Important to study the differences but any particular differences you might see would be far outweighed by examining differences of a group Knowing Ourselves through Introspection Introspection ? The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings and motives. ?Oh my gosh , I was doing that?? but you don?t take into in consideration very often. We all have basic standards and values we utilize in a broad way to give us some sort of parameter as to how our behavior is being looked at Too much sense of self can heighten our anxieties or worries (I can?t believe I did that, Why did I do that, etc.) Strategies of dealing with it: Avoidance, denial, drinking, drugs, etc. But it doesn?t have to be negative. Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More than We Can Know Even when we are self-aware and introspect to our heart?s content, it can be difficult to know why we feel the way we do. What is it about your sweetheart that made you fall in love? How much does sleep affect your state of mind? What really determines what mood you?re in? Causal Theories - Theories about the causes of one?s own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture. e.g.: ?Absence makes the heart grow fonder.? The problem is that our schemas and theories are not always correct and thus can lead to incorrect Out of site, out of mind If you can?t beat ?em, join ?em Easy come, easy go Win a few, lose a few It?s not whether you win or lose it?s how you played the game No sense in crying over spilled milk Causal theories are a sense of justifying what we do with our life The problem is that our schemas and theories are not always correct and thus can lead to incorrect Knowing Ourselves by Observing Our Own Behavior Self-Perception Theory ? The theory that when our (social perception theory is the same thing, only this one is about ourself) Extrinsic Motivation ? The desire to engage in an activity because of external reasons, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting. Things that motivate us from the outside. Ex: If you offer the child a big reward for reading five books by the end of the week you have changed the motivation from intrinsic to extrinsic. Intrinsic Motivation ? The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards or pressures. Motivation that comes from within Ex: A child that enjoys reading and continues reading because they like to read Ex: If you offer the child a big reward for reading five books by the end of the week you have changed the motivation from intrinsic to extrinsic. Most of society starts with extrinsic motivations and the goal is to turn them into intrinsic. -Same thing as attribution error, we?re just doing it with ourselves. Preserving Intrinsic Interest Task-Contingent Rewards ? R Task-contingent Rewards- just doing the task How well you do with the task Understanding Our Emotions: Two Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Feelings are not fully interpreted until we get an idea of the situation that is occurring. Ex: If you just got done working out and then run into someone you?re attracted to it?s going to heighten your emotion. Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Feeling warm, hands a little shaky, hearts beating Sees bear = fear Exam = Anxiety Etc. Misattribution of arousal. Misread of what?s going on Appraisal Theories of Emotions ? Theories There are sometimes when we just don?t feel emotion. Interpretation then the determination on how we feel. (Interpretation before emotion?) Knowing Ourselves When do you engage U Upward social comparison: Comparing ourselves to people better than we are Downward social comparison- giving ourselves an out to feel better about our situation. Looking downward towards someone who is worse off than we are. Ex: Having trouble paying the bills, well at least we?re not as bad off as so-and-so Social Tuning ? The process Adjust our attitudes to fit someone else?s attitude Reasons: Ingration Self-Handicapping ? Excuses after the fact as a means of the reason why Self-Enhancement ? Knowledge of ourself, there is some reality to it. Sometimes we can use it to good judgement and sometimes there are distortions.
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