Chapter 6 ? The Skeletal System (pg. 90-93) The Skeletal System ? the physical foundation of the body It is composed of 206 bones with movable and immovable joints. Osteology ? is the scientific study of bones, their structure and their function ?OS? means ?bone?, and is used as a prefix in many medical terms, such as osteoarthritis, a joint disease. Bone is the hardest tissue of the body Composed of connective tissue, one-third organic matter-cells and blood, and two-thirds mineral, mainly calcium carbohydrate and calcium phosphate. The primary functions of the skeletal system are to: Give shape and support, protect various internal structures and organs, serve as attachment for muscles and act as levers to produce body movement, help produce both white and red blood cells, store mos of the body?s calcium supply as well as phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium. A going is the connection between two or more bones of the skeleton. Two types of joints: movable-elbows, knees, and hips? and immovable-pelvis or skull, which allow little movement. Bones of the skill The skull is the skeleton of the head and is divided into two parts: The cranium ? and oval, bony case that protects the brain Facial skeleton ? This is made up of 14 bones. The cranium is made up of 8 bones Occipital bone ? hindmost bone of the skill, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skill and above the nape. (Occipital bone forms the lower back part of the cranium.) Two partial bones ? form the sides and crown (top) of the cranium. Frontal bone ? forms the forehead. Two temporal bones ? Form the sides of the head in the ear region. Ethmoid bone ? Light spongy bone between the eye sockets and forms part of the nasal cavities. Sphenoid bone ? joints all of the bones of the cranium together. (the ethmoid bone and sphenoid bones are not affected by massage) Bones of the Face Of the 14 bones of the face the bones involved in facial massage include: Two nasal bones. They form the bridge of the nose Two lacrimal bones. Small, thin bones located at the front intter wall of the orbits (eye sockets.) Two zygomatic or male bones. Form the prominence of the cheeks; cheekbones. Two maxillae. Bones of the upper jaw (singular; maxilla.) Mandible. Lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face. Facial bone not recognized when performing services or massage. Two turbinal bones. Thin layers of spongy bone on either of the outer walls of the nasal depression. Vomer bone ? flat thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum. Two palatine bones ? form the floor and outer wall of the nose, roof of the mouth, and floor of the orbits. Bones of the neck The main bones of the neck are: ** Hyoid bone. U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles. Cervical Vertebrae ? The seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column located in the neck region. Bones of the chest shoulder and back The bones of the truck or torso are comprised of ? Thorax ? the chest; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs Ribs ? twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax Scapula ? one of a pair of shoulder blades, a large, flat triangular bone of the shoulder. Sternum ? breastbone; flat bone that forms the ventral (front) support of the ribs. ***Clavicle. Collarbone; bone that joins the sternum and scapula. Bones of the Arms and Hands. The important bones of the shoulder, arms and hands that you should know about include the following: ***Humerus ? uppermost and largest bone of the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder. ***The forearm is made up of two bones; the ulna and radius. ***Ulna ? Inner and larger bone of the forearm (lower arm), attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger. ***Radius ? Smaller bone in the forearm (lower arm) on the same side as the thumb. ***Carpus ? (The wrist); flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones (carpals) held together by ligaments. Metacarpus ? bones of the palm of the hand; parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges. ***Phalanges ? Bones in the fingers or digits (also the toes), consisting of three bones in each finger and two in each thumb totaling 14 bones. Bones of the Leg and Foot ***Femur ? a heavy, long bones that forms the leg above the knee Tibia ? the larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The tibia may be visualized as a ?bump? on the big toe side of the ankle. ***Fibula ? is the smaller of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The fibula may be visualized as a ?bump? on the little toe side of the ankle Patella ? also called the accessory bone, forms the knee cap joint The ankle joint is made up of three bones. Tibia Fibula Talas or ankle bone of the foot. **The foot is made up of 26 bones. These can be sibdivided into three general categories Seven tarsal bones Ralus Calcaneous Navicular Three cuneiform bones Cuboid Five Metatarsal bones Long slender, like the metacarpal bones of the hand Fourteen bones called phalanges which compose the toes.
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