Muscular System ? Chapter 6 (pg. 93-99) The muscular system - the body system that covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue. The muscular system?s function is to produce all movements of the body Cosmetologists; know the voluntary muscles that control movements of the arms, hands, lower legs, and feet. Myology: the study of the structure, function, and disease of the muscles. Human body has over 600 muscles. Responsible for approximately 40% of body weight. Muscles are fibrous tissues that have the ability to stretch and contrast to the demands of the body?s movements. Three types of Muscular Tissue: *Striated muscles ? also called skeletal muscles, are attached to the bones and are voluntary or consciously controlled. Assist in maintaining the body?s posture, and protect some organs. (Voluntary muscles that are controlled by will are called striated) *Non striated muscles, or smooth muscles, are involuntary and function automatically, without conscious will. The muscles are found in the internal organs of the body such as digestive or respiratory system. Cardiac Muscle ? the involuntary muscle that is the heart. This type of muscle is not found in any other part of the body. A muscle has three parts: Orgin is the part that does not move; it is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle. Insertion is the part of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the skeleton. Belly is the middle part of the muscle. *Pressure in massage is usually directed from the insertion to the origin. (The part of the muscles that moves is the insertin.) Muscles of the scalp - *Epicranius or occipito-frontalis is the broad muscle that covers the top of the skull consists of the occipitals and frontals. (Consists of two parts) - Occipitals: back of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward. - Frontalis: Anterior (front) portion of the epicranius; muscles of the scalp that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across the forehead. - Epicranial Aponeurosis: tendon that connects the occipitals and frontals. Muscles of the Ear: Three muscles of the ear have no function Auricularis superior ? Muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward Auricular anterior ? muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward *Auricularis Posterior ? muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backwards Muscles of Mastication (chewing) *Masseter and temporalis muscles coordinate in opening and closing the mouth, and are sometimes referred to as chewing muscles. Muscles of the Neck *Platysma muscle: Broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip. Sternocleidonmastoideus: Muscle of the neck that lowers and rotates the head. Muscles of the eyebrow Corrugator muscle ? muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi that draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically. *Orbicularis oculi muscle: ring muscle of the eye socket; enables you to close your eyes. Muscles of the Nose *Procerus : covers the bridge of the nose, lowers the eyebrows, and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose. Muscles of the Mouth *Buccinator muscle ? Thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips (as in blowing) Depressor Labii inferioris muscle: also known as quadrates labii inferious, a muscle surrounding the lower lip; lowers the lower lip and draws it to one side, as in expressing sarcasm. Levator anguli oris ? also known as caninus, a muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward. Levator Labii superioris ? also known as quadrates labii superioris, a muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste. Mantalis ? muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin. *Orbicularis oris muscle ? flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contacts, pickers, and wrinkles the lips. Risorius ? muscle of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth out and back, as in grinning. *Triangularis ? muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth. Zygomaticus ? major and minor. Muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth; elevate the lip, as in laughing. Muscles that attach the arms to the body Latissimus dorsi ? broad flat superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controlling the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm. Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor ? muscles of the chest that assist in the swinging movements of the arm. *Serratus anterior ? Muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm. Trapiezius ? Muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swinging movements of the arm. Muscles of the shoulder and arm *Bicep ? muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; they lift the forearm and flex the elbow. Deltoid ? Large, triangular muscle that covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body. Tricep ? Large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm. The forarm is made up of a series of muscles and strong tendons. As a cosmetologist, you will be concerned with: *Extensors: Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line. Flexors: Extensor muscles of the wrist, involved in bending the wrist. Pronators : Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward. *Supinator: Muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outwards and the palm upward. Muscles of the hand *Abductors ? Muscles that separate the fingers *Adductors ? Muscles at the base of each finger that draw the fingers together. Muscles of the Lower leg and foot. *Extensor Digitorum Longus ? bends the foot up and extends the toes. Eibialis anterior ? covers the front of the shin. It bends the foot upwards and inward. *Peroneus Longus ? covers the outer side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward. Peroneus Brevis ? originates on the lower surface of the fubula. It bends the foot down and out. Gastrocnemius ? it attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down. Soleus ? originates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down. The muscle of the feet include: Extensor digitorum brevis Flexor digitorum brevis Abductor The foot muscles move the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
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