Chapter 1: Melody: Musical Line- Study Guide MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. According to your text, the musical element that makes the widest and most direct appeal is: 2. A succession of single tones or pitches perceived as a unit is called: 3. The distance between the highest and lowest tones of a melody is called: 4. The distance between two pitches is called: 5. Which term describes a melody that moves by small intervals? 6. A musical sound: 7. Musical sounds are represented by a symbol called a(n): 8. Which element of music is measured in decibels? 9. A term referring to loudness or volume is: 10. A melody can be characterized by: 11. Why is Beethoven's Ode to Joy easy to sing? 12. A unit of meaning within a larger structure of a melody is called: 13. The resting place at the end of a phrase is called: 14. Musical punctuation, similar to a comma or period in a sentence, is called: 15. The striking emotional effect created by the high point in a melodic line is called: 16. One melody added to, or played against, another melody is called: TRUE/FALSE 1. Most musical cultures share the concept of melody or musical line. 2. A musical note is the symbolic representation of a sound with pitch and duration. 3. The length or size of a vibrating object has no effect on pitch. 4. The overall shape of a melody is called range. 5. Melodies that move principally by small, connected intervals are conjunct. 6. Melodies that skip in disjointed intervals are disjunct. 7. A component unit of a melody is a phrase. 8. The phrases in the tune Amazing Grace are of unequal length. 9. The melody of The Star-Spangled Banner is best described as conjunct. 10. The rhyme scheme of a poem is determined by the first word of each poetic line. Chapter 2: Rhythm and Meter: Musical Time- Study Guide MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Music is propelled forward in time by: 2. The element of music that organizes movement in time is: 3. The basic unit of rhythm that divides time into equal segments is called: 4. Beats that are more strongly emphasized than others are said to be: 5. Organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses are called: 6. Meter is marked off in groupings known as: 7. The first accented beat of a measure is called: 8. The metric pattern in which a strong beat alternates with a weak one is called: 9. Which meter would most likely be associated with a march? 10. In triple meter, the strongest pulse occurs on: 11. A repeated rhythmic pattern in which an accented beat is followed by two unaccented beats is: 12. Meters in which each beat is subdivided into three rather than two are known as: 13. In sextuple meter, the principal accents usually fall on: 14. The patriotic song America (?My country ?tis of thee?) is an example of: 15. Which of the following songs is in compound meter? 16. When a song begins on the last beat of a measure, it is said to begin with: 17. The deliberate shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat is called: 18. The simultaneous use of two or more rhythmic patterns is called: 19. Music that moves without a strong sense of beat or meter is called: TRUE/FALSE 1. The element that organizes movement in time is called harmony. 2. Measures mark off groupings of beats, each with a fixed number that coincides with the meter. 3. Meter is the measurement of musical time. 4. Meter is an organizing principle shared by music and poetry. 5. Syncopation is a rhythmic characteristic of American jazz. 6. Syncopation is typical of African-American dance music and spirituals. 7. Polyrhythm is characteristic of musics of many African cultures. 8. All world musics feature a strong regular pulse or beat. 9. Music that moves without a strong sense of beat or meter is referred to as nonmetric. Chapter 3: Harmony: Musical Space- Study Guide MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The depth resulting from simultaneous events in music is described by the term: 2. Harmony is to music as __________ is to painting. 3. The distance and relationship between two tones is referred to as: 4. A combination of three or more tones that constitutes a single block of harmony is called: 5. A collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order is called: 6. An interval of eight notes is called: 7. A triad is: 8. The first note of the scale is called the: 9. The principle of organization around a central tone is called: 10. Which tonality would most likely be chosen for a triumphal march? 11. Music in minor tonality is often perceived as sounding: 12. Of the following, which does NOT describe a dissonance? 13. Should a composer write a film score to a horror movie, one might reasonably expect that the harmony would include a great deal of: 14. A combination of tones that sounds discordant, unstable, or in need of resolution is called: 15. Which of the following terms describes a concordant or agreeable combination of tones? TRUE/FALSE 1. Harmony is important to most non-Western musical cultures. 2. A triad is a chord made up of three tones. 3. Three alternate notes of a scale, sounded simultaneously, form a triad. 4. Melody and harmony function independently of each other. 5. The principle of organization around a central tone is called tonality. 6. The two scale types commonly found in Western music from about 1650 to 1900 are major and minor. 7. Harmonic movement is generated by motion toward a goal or resolution. 8. Harmonic movement in music receives its maximum tension from consonance. 9. A combination of tones that is discordant and unstable produces a consonance. 10. Generally speaking, music has grown more consonant through the ages. Chapter 4: The Organization of Musical Sounds MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. How many notes in a scale does an octave span? 2. In Western music, the octave is divided into how many equal intervals? 3. The smallest interval in our Western musical system is called: 4. A twelve-tone scale, including all the semitones of the octave, is called: 5. The musical symbol # represents a: 6. On the piano, the black key between the white keys C and D is called: 7. Tonality means that we hear a piece of music in relation to a central tone, called: 8. The principle of organization whereby we hear a piece of music in relation to a central tone is called: 9. A group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, is called: 10. In a major scale, the greatest tension lies between what two tones? 11. In a major scale, between what pairs of tones do the half steps occur? 12. What characterizes the minor scale? 13. Music based on the seven tones of a major or minor scale is called: 14. With which era is chromatic music most frequently associated? 15. How many notes make up a pentatonic scale? 16. Which of the following does NOT make frequent use of pentatonic scales? 17. Which of the following terms does NOT refer to a musical scale? 18. How many notes make up a heptatonic scale? 19. An interval smaller than our semitone, or half step, is called: 20. The triad built on the first note of the scale is called: 21. The tonic chord is represented by which symbol? 22. The dominant chord is represented by which symbol? 23. In harmony, a place of rest and return is: 24. The three basic triads in our musical system are the tonic, the dominant, and: 25. The three most important triads used in diatonic harmony are: 26. The process of passing from one key to another is known as: 27. When a melody is transposed to another key, what remains the same? TRUE/FALSE 1. In Western music, the octave is divided into seven equal parts, which make up the chromatic scale. 2. All musical cultures of the world divide the octave into twelve equal half steps. 3. A sharp lowers the tone by a half step. 4. A key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitate. 5. Within a key, the central tone is called the semitone. 6. A major or minor scale can begin on any of the twelve semitones of the octave. 7. Chromatic music is most closely associated with the Classical era. 8. A variety of world musics make use of pentatonic scales. 9. All pentatonic scales use the same notes, and thus sound the same. 10. A tritonic scale is made up of eight notes. 11. Although common in jazz, inflecting a pitch is unusual in most Western music. 12. Active chords seek to resolve to resting chords, imparting a sense of direction or goal. 13. The dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolved. 14. The process of passing from one key to another is known as modulation. 15. The act of shifting all the tones of a musical composition a uniform distance to a different pitch level is called transposition. 16. In earlier times, a composer's choice of key for a piece depended largely on the capabilities of the instruments for which it was intended. Chapter 5: Musical Texture- Study Guide MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The element that describes the musical fabric, or the relationship of musical lines within a work, is called: 2. A texture featuring a single, unaccompanied line is called: 3. The predominant texture used in music up to about one thousand years ago was: 4. Traditional music of the Far East is largely: 5. A melody combined with an ornamented version of itself, often heard in jazz, produces a texture known as: 6. When two or more independent melodic lines are combined, the resulting texture is called: 7. The texture that combines two or more simultaneous melodic lines is called: 8. A texture in which a single voice takes over the melodic interest while the accompanying voices are subordinate is called: 9. The texture in which all the voices move in the same rhythm is called: 10. The procedure in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another is called: 11. A strict composition with imitation throughout is called: 12. A simple and familiar type of canon is called: 13. What term best describes Row, Row, Row Your Boat? TRUE/FALSE 1. A single-voiced texture is called monophony. 2. Traditional music of the Middle and Far East is typically polyphonic. 3. The art of combining two or more simultaneous melodic lines is called counterpoint. 4. The art of counterpoint is most closely associated with monophonic texture. 5. A heterophonic texture frequently occurs in music involving improvisation, such as jazz. 6. Homophonic describes a single-voiced texture without accompaniment. 7. In a homorhythmic texture, the melody and harmony move with the same rhythm. 8. Most compositions use one type of texture exclusively. Chapter 6: Musical Form- Study Guide MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What quality of a work of art refers to its structure or shape? 2. The basic structural concepts in the element of form are: 3. A vocal work in which each poetic stanza is sung to the same melody is in: 4. The term __________ describes the technique whereby some aspects of the music are changed, yet the whole remains recognizable. 5. The technique through which performers create music on the spot is known as: 6. The form based on a statement and a departure without a return to the complete opening statement is called: 7. Which of the following best defines binary form? 8. Ternary form is represented by the pattern: 9. The compositional technique whereby a composer searches out a theme's capacity for growth and expansion is known as: 10. The restatement of a musical idea at a higher or lower pitch is called: 11. A basic technique in thematic development is the fragmentation of themes into: 12. The smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called: 13. A singing style that features a leader who is imitated by a group is called: 14. Ostinato, or the repetitive use of a short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern, is common in: 15. The separate sections of a large musical work are called: TRUE/FALSE 1. Musical structure generally features a balance between unity and variety. 2. Forms are fixed molds into which composers force their material. 3. Improvisation is common in Western music, but not in non-Western music. 4. A musical form based on a statement, a departure, and a restatement of the first idea is called binary form. 5. Ternary form is best outlined as A-B-A. 6. The restatement of a theme or motive at a higher or lower pitch level is known as a sequence. 7. Call and response music is common in African and Native American cultures. 8. An ostinato is the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit. 9. A short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern repeated throughout a musical work is called an ostinato. 10. A movement is a complete, comparatively independent division of a large-scale work. Chapter 7: Musical Expression: Tempo and Dynamics- Study Guide MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The rate of speed at which a piece of music is played is its: 2. What emotional response would most likely be associated with an accelerating tempo? 3. Music that is despairing and sad usually has a __________ tempo. 4. In what language are tempo markings generally given? 5. Which marking is appropriate for a slow tempo? 6. Which of the following tempo markings does NOT indicate a slow tempo? 7. Which of the following tempo markings is the fastest? 8. Which of the following modifiers should be added to an allegro marking to indicate a very fast tempo? 9. Accelerando is a term indicating that the tempo is: 10. The degree of loudness or softness, or volume, at which music is played is called: 11. Which of the following dynamic markings is the softest? 12. Which of the following symbols indicates growing louder? 13. The gradual swelling of the volume of music is called: 14. The markings for tempo and dynamics contribute most directly to: TRUE/FALSE 1. The tempo indicates the loudness of the music. 2. The tempo of a piece affects its mood and character. 3. Allegro is an Italian term for a fast, cheerful tempo. 4. The degree of loudness and softness in music is called dynamics. Chapter 8: Voices and Musical Instrument Families- Study Guide MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Of the following, which is NOT a property of a musical sound? 2. The quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another is: 3. The term timbre refers to: 4. A mechanism that generates musical vibrations and launches them into the air is called: 5. A specific area within the range of a voice or instrument, such as high, middle, or low, is called: 6. The standard ranges of the human voice from highest to lowest are: 7. Which of the following voices has the lowest range? 8. The generally accepted term for the high male vocal range is: 9. The human voice: 10. Instruments that produce sound from a vibrating string are called: 11. Instruments that produce sound by using air as the vibrating means are called: 12. Of the following, which is NOT a chordophone? 13. How do idiophones produce sound? 14. Drum-type instruments fall into the category of: TRUE/FALSE 1. Throughout history, women?s voices have held a central role in the performance of church music. 2. In some cultures, women?s voices are preferred for certain styles of music. 3. Throughout history, the voice has served as a model to instrumentalists and to instrument builders. 4. Flutes and whistles are classified as idiophones. 5. A guitar is an example of a chordophone. Chapter 9: Western Musical Instruments-Study Guide MULTIPLE CHOICE The instruments of the Western orchestra are categorized in four groups: strings, brass, percussion, and: . Woodwind instruments: Which of the following is true of all brass instruments? Which of the following is true of all brass instruments? The piano got its name, originally ?pianoforte,? from: Of the following statements, which describes the organ? TRUE/FALSE String instruments are generally played by either bowing or plucking. All woodwind instruments are made of wood The piano is limited by a narrow range of pitches and dynamics. The pipe organ is a wind instrument, sounded by air. Chapter 10: Musical Ensembles- Study Guide MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A fairly large body of singers who perform together is called: 2. The term a cappella refers to choral music performed: 3. What distinguishes chamber music from orchestral music? 5. Approximately two-thirds of a symphony orchestra consists of: 6. Which instruments are traditionally seated in the front of the orchestra? 7. The term band refers to: 8. John Philip Sousa was famous as a composer of: 9. A jazz band is normally made up of: TRUE/FALSE 1. Specialized choirs that perform with organ are called a cappella ensembles. 2. Chamber music is intended for a small group of performers, with one player to a part. 3. The standard instrumentation of a string quartet is two violins, viola, and cello. 4. The term orchestra may be applied to various musical ensembles around the world. 5. The earliest wind and percussion groups were created for military purposes. 6. Most large musical ensembles use a conductor in order to perform together. 7. The upbeat is the strongest in any meter. Chapter 11: Style and Function of Music in Society 1. Of the following, which is a universal function of music found in world cultures? 2. What general term suggests something of the overall character of a work as well as its function? 3. Music that borrows one style for use in another is described as: 4. What type of music would NOT be considered purely entertainment? 5. The concept of style can be identified with: TRUE/FALSE Secular music is generally intended for religious occasions. A genre is a category or type of music repertory. Work songs are most often responsorial. a. rhythm. c. timbre. b. texture. d. melody. a. an interval. c. a harmony. b. a melody. d. a chord. a. the tempo. c. the phrase. b. the range. d. the tonic. a. an interval. c. a cadence. b. a phrase. d. a countermelody. a. consonant c. dissonant b. conjunct d. disjunct a. has a perceivable pitch and a measurable frequency. b. is produced by irregular air particles. c. need not have a distinct pitch. d. all of the above a. pitch. c. note. b. cue. d. amplitude. a. tempo c. color b. duration d. volume a. frequency. c. timbre. b. amplitude. d. pitch. a. its range. c. the way it moves. b. its shape. d. all of the above a. It has a wide range. c. It has phrases with unequal lengths. b. It is conjunct. d. It has no cadences. a. a phrase. c. a cadence. b. a stanza. d. a climax. a. a pause. c. a cadence. b. a period. d. a comma. a. a cadence. c. a chord. b. a syncopation. d. a scale. a. the cadence. c. the climax. b. the countermelody. d. the range. a. a cadence. c. a countermelody. b. a phrase. d. a tune. a. harmony. c. texture. b. rhythm. d. timbre. a. rhythm. c. harmony. b. melody. d. form. a. the meter. c. the beat. b. the syncopation. d. the accent. a. minor. c. accented. b. major. d. metrical. a. offbeats. c. syncopations. b. meters. d. polyrhythms. a. phrases. c. cadences. b. measures. d. chords. a. a syncopated beat. c. an upbeat. b. a simple beat. d. a downbeat. a. triple meter. c. quadruple meter. b. duple meter. d. compound meter. a. duple c. quadruple b. triple d. compound a. the first beat. c. the third beat. b. the second beat. d. all beats equally. a. duple meter. c. quadruple meter. b. triple meter. d. compound meter. a. simple meters. c. compound meters. b. complex meters. d. unequal meters. a. beats 1 and 3. c. beats 2 and 4. b. beats 1 and 4. d. beats 3 and 6. a. duple meter. c. quadruple meter. b. triple meter. d. compound meter. a. Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star c. America, the Beautiful b. Greensleeves d. America a. an offbeat. c. a polyrhythm. b. a syncopation. d. an upbeat. a. rhythm. c. syncopation. b. meter. d. compound meter. a. polyrhythm. c. additive meter. b. syncopation. d. compound meter. a. compound. c. nonmetric. b. additive. d. irregular. a. texture. c. dissonance. b. harmony. d. melody. a. the frame c. perspective b. color d. the brush a. an interval. c. an octave. b. a scale. d. a chord. a. an interval. c. an octave. b. a scale. d. a chord. a. a scale. c. an interval. b. a chord. d. an octave. a. a chord. c. a triad. b. a fifth. d. an octave. a. the most common chord type found in Western music. b. a three-note chord. c. built on alternate scale steps. d. all of the above a. octave. c. tonic. b. triad. d. dominant. a. chromaticism. c. consonance. b. tonality. d. centralization. a. minor c. chromatic b. major d. modal a. subdued or sad. c. happy and joyful. b. triumphal. d. colorful. a. It is a discordant sound. c. It sustains a sense of stability. b. It creates a need for resolution. d. It creates tension. a. syncopation. c. consonance. b. conjunct motion. d. dissonance. a. a cadence. c. a dissonance. b. a consonance. d. a tonality. a. conjunct c. disjunct b. consonant d. dissonant a. five c. eight b. six d. ten a. six c. twelve b. eight d. fifteen a. a half step. c. an octave. b. a whole step. d. a third. a. chromatic. c. major. b. diatonic. d. minor. a. note. c. flat. b. sharp. d. pitch. a. C-sharp or D-flat. c. D-sharp or E. b. C-flat or B. d. none of the above a. the dominant. c. the scale. b. the subdominant. d. the tonic. a. tonality. c. modulation. b. transposition. d. chromaticism. a. an interval. c. an octave. b. a key. d. a melody. a. 3 and 4 c. 6 and 7 b. 4 and 5 d. 7 and 8 a. 2 and 3, 7 and 8 c. 2 and 3, 6 and 7 b. 3 and 4, 7 and 8 d. 2 and 3, 5 and 6 a. It has a lowered third degree. c. It sounds the same as the major mode. b. It always begins on the note F. d. It is made entirely of half steps. a. chromatic. c. modal. b. diatonic. d. transposed. a. Romantic c. Classical b. Renaissance d. Middle Ages a. eight c. twelve b. five d. four a. Western art music c. Japanese music b. Native American music d. Chinese music a. heptatonic c. monophonic b. pentatonic d. chromatic a. five c. seven b. six d. eight a. a whole tone. c. a microtone. b. a glissando. d. an octave. a. the tonic. c. the subdominant. b. the dominant. d. the subtonic. a. I c. V b. IV d. VII a. I c. V b. IV d. VII a. the tonic. c. the subdominant. b. the dominant. d. the leading tone. a. the supertonic. c. the submediant. b. the mediant. d. the subdominant. a. I, III, and V. c. I, IV, and V. b. I, V, and VII. d. I, VI, and VII. a. modulation. c. transposition. b. development. d. transformation. a. the pitch level of the melody c. the shape of the melodic line b. the key note, or tonic, of the melody d. the number of sharps or flats a. harmony. c. texture. b. meter. d. timbre. a. monophony. c. polyphony. b. homophony. d. counterpoint. a. polyphonic. c. monophonic. b. homophonic. d. all of the above a. homophonic. c. polyphonic. b. contrapuntal. d. monophonic. a. monophony. c. heterophony. b. monody. d. homophony. a. polyphony. c. homophony. b. monophony. d. heterophony. a. monophony. c. heterophony. b. homophony. d. polyphony. a. homophony. c. polyphony. b. counterpoint. d. monophony. a. homorhythm. c. homometer. b. polyrhythm. d. polymeter. a. inversion. c. retrograde. b. diminution. d. imitation. a. a canon. c. an augmentation. b. a retrograde. d. a sequence. a. a theme. c. a round. b. a motive. d. a scale. a. monophonic c. homophonic b. heterophonic d. round a. theme c. form b. melody d. harmony a. repetition and contrast. c. polyphonic and homophonic. b. major and minor. d. duple and triple. a. refrain form. c. chorus form. b. strophic form. d. variation form. a. variation c. form b. contrast d. repetition a. ostinato. c. inversion. b. improvisation. d. canon. a. binary. c. variation. b. ternary. d. repetition. a. A-B-A c. A-A b. A-B d. B-B a. A-B. c. A-B-A. b. A-A-A. d. A-B-C. a. augmentation. c. thematic development. b. diminution. d. ternary form. a. a motive. c. a theme. b. a sequence. d. an ostinato. a. melodies. c. rhythms. b. motives. d. notes. a. a motive. c. a canon. b. a sequence. d. a cadence. a. call and response. c. crossover. b. ostinato. d. thematic development. a. rock. c. jazz. b. blues. d. all of the above a. songs. c. movements. b. symphonies. d. chapters. a. meter. c. movement. b. tempo. d. mood. a. peacefulness c. sadness b. agitation d. exhaustion a. fast c. slow b. moderate d. vigorous a. Italian c. German b. French d. Dutch a. andante c. piano b. adagio d. allegro a. grave c. presto b. largo d. adagio a. presto c. moderato b. vivace d. allegro a. meno c. non troppo b. molto d. a tempo a. getting slower. c. getting faster. b. staying the same. d. returning to the original tempo. a. texture. c. timbre. b. tempo. d. dynamics. a. pianissimo (pp) c. mezzo piano (mp) b. piano (p) d. mezzo forte (mf ) a. > c. mp b. < d. mf a. piano. c. accelerando. b. adagio. d. crescendo. a. the expressive content of a piece of music. b. the form of a piece of music. c. the thematic development of a piece of music. d. the tonality of a piece of music. a. pitch c. duration b. texture d. timbre a. timbre. c. tempo. b. pitch. d. volume. a. the length of a tone. c. the color of a tone. b. the pitch of a tone. d. the falling of a tree. a. a mute. c. a baton. b. a podium. d. an instrument. a. timbre. c. register. b. volume. d. form. a. soprano, alto, tenor, bass. c. tenor, soprano, alto, bass. b. bass, tenor, soprano, alto. d. soprano, tenor, alto, bass. a. baritone c. tenor b. bass d. alto a. bass. c. alto. b. tenor. d. soprano. a. is an unnatural musical instrument. b. is limited in character and range. c. possesses lyric beauty and expressiveness that has served as a model for instrument builders and players. d. can be made to sound like any instrument. a. aerophones. c. idiophones. b. chordophones. d. membranophones. a. aerophones. c. idiophones. b. chordophones. d. membranophones. a. violin c. bagpipes b. guitar d. yangquin a. from a vibrating string b. by setting a column of air in vibration c. by shaking, scraping, or striking the instrument itself d. from a tightly stretched membrane a. aerophones. c. idiophones. b. chordophones d. membranophones. a. flutes. c. woodwinds. b. chordophones. d. idiophones. a. are all made of wood. c. all have a woody tone quality. b. are all played with a wooden reed. d. all have a pipe with holes. a. They are made of metal. b. They are blown with a metal mouthpiece. c. Their sound is created by the vibration of the lips. d. all of the above a. They are made of metal. b. They are blown with a metal mouthpiece. c. Their sound is created by the vibration of the lips. d. all of the above a. the name of its inventor. c. its wide dynamic range. b. the fact that it could not sustain tones. d. the way it was played late at night. a. Sound is created when air flows through pipes controlled by the organist. b. Some organs have more than one keyboard, including one played by the feet. c. The sound of an organ can be imitated by electric keyboards and synthesizers. d. all of the above a. an orchestra. c. a chorus. b. a chamber ensemble. d. a band. a. with organ accompaniment. c. with piano accompaniment. b. with orchestral accompaniment. d. without any accompaniment. a. the forms of the movements b. the number of players on each part c. the room in which the music is being performed d. the number of movements in a work a. woodwinds. c. brass. b. strings. d. percussion. a. strings c. brass b. woodwinds d. percussion a. a rock group. c. a marching ensemble. b. a jazz group. d. all of the above a. symphonies. c. piano trios. b. string quartets. d. marches. a. woodwind instruments. c. percussion instruments. b. brass instruments. d. all of the above a. accompanying religious and civic ceremonies b. helping workers get their jobs done more efficiently c. providing entertainment d. all of the above a. form c. medium b. genre d. opus a. crossover. c. hybrid. b. synthesizer. d. all of the above a. symphonies c. Japanese songs performed in teahouses b. jazz and blues d. spirituals sung at revivals a. individual artworks. b. a creator?s personal manner of expression. c. music of an entire culture. d. all of the above
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