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Warren High School
Warren High School
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Five conditions of non evolving population
Extremely large population size
No gene flow
No natural selection
Three major factors that alter allele frequencies
a sudden change in the environment that may drastically reduce the size of a population.
The resulting gene pool may no longer be reflective of the original population’s gene pool.
Occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population
Genetic variation that appears to grant no selective advantage
taxonomy - branch of biology dedicated to naming and classification of all forms of life
binomial nomenclature - two part naming system that includes the organism's genus and species
Hyacinth Macaw -
Principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and by different mechanisms than those occurring today
explains boundaries between strata and location of different species
The idea that the geologic processes that have shaped the planet have not changed over the course of earth's history
Use and disuse
The idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger, while those that are not used deteriorate
describes intentional breeding for certain traits, or combination of traits.
Process in which individuals that have certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals
Evidence for evolution
The fossil record
anatomical signs of evolution
shows evidence of relatedness
Comparison of early stages of animal development reveals many anatomical homologies in embryos the are not visible in adult organisms.
structures of marginal, if any, importance to the organism
Shared characteristics on the molecular level
Explains why distantly related species can resemble one another
similar solutions to similar problems but do not indicate close relatedness
Geographic distribution of a species
Species in a discrete geographic area tend to be more closely related to each other than to species in distant geographic areas
Change in the allele frequencies of a population over generations
Evolution on it's smallest scale
Only source of new genes and new alleles
Changes in one base in a gene
Ex. Sickle-cell disease
Delete, disrupt, duplicate or rearrange many loci at once.
Most genetic variations occur...
within a population are due to the sexual recombination of alleles that already exist in a population
Study of how populations change genetically over time
All of the alleles at all loci in all the members of a population
The contribution an organism makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other members.
Individuals with one extreme of a phenotypic range are favored, shifting the curve toward this extreme.
Occurs when conditions favor individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range rather than individuals with intermediate phenotypes.
acts against both extreme phenotypes and favors intermediate variants
individuals who are heterozygous at a certain locus have an advantage for survival.
the process by which new species arise
change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation. Refers to adaptations that are confined to a single gene pool.
the evolutionary level above the species level
the existence of biological barriers that impede members of two species from producing viable, fertile hybrids.
Prevents a fertilized egg from turning into a fertile adult
two species can live in the same geographic are but not in the same habitat; this will prevent from the mating
some species use certain signals or types of behavior to attract mates, and these signals are unique to their species
species may breed at different times of day, different seasons, or different years, and this can prevent them from mating
species may be anatomically incompatible
even if the gametes of two species do meet, they might be unable to fuse to form a zygote
In which a population forms a new species because it is geographically isolated from the parent population.
A small part of a population becomes a new population without being geographically separated from the parent population
is the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage
species descend from a common ancestor and gradually diverge more and more in morphology as they acquire unique adaptations.
A term used to describe periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change observed in the fossil record.
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