in Piaget's theory actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
Piegetian concept of the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge.
Piegetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences.
Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors into higher-order, more smoothly functioning cognitive system; the grouping or arranging of items into categories.
A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next. The shift occurs as children experience cognitive conflict, or disequilibrium, in tryng to understand the world. Eventually, they resolve the conflict and reach a balance, or equilibrium of thought.
the first of Piaget's stages, which lasts from about birth to 2 years; infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (ex: seeing and hearing) with motoric actions.
the Piagetian term for one of an infant's most important accomplishments: understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be directly seen, heard, or touched.
Also called A-B error, this occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place (A) rather than the new hiding place (B) as they progress into substage 4 in Piaget's sensorimotor stage.
Core Knowledge Approach
states that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems, such as those involving space, number sense, object permanence, and language.
internalized actions that allow children to do mentally what before they had done only physically. Operations also are reversible mental actions.
the second Piagetian developmental stage, which lasts from 2 to 7 years old, when children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
Symbolic Function Substage
the first substage of preoperational thought, occurring roughly between the ages of 2 and 4 years old. In this substage, the child gains the ability to represent mentally an object that is not present.
an important feature of preoperational thought; the inability to distinguish between one's own and someone else's perspective.
a facet of preoperational thought: the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action.
Intuitive Thought Substage
the second substage of preoperational thought, occurirng between 4 and 7 years of age, when children begin to use primitive reasoning.
focusing attention on one characterisitc to the exclusion of all others.
the idea that altering an object's or substance's appearance does not change its basic properties.
Concrete Operational Stage
Piaget's third stage, which lasts from 7 to 11 years old, when children can perform concrete operations, and logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning as long as the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples.
Piaget's concept that similar abilities do not appear at the same time within a stage of development.
the concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length)
principle that says if a relation holds between a first object and a second object, and holds between the second object and a third object, then it holds between the first and third objects. Characteristic of concrete operational thought.
Formal Operational Stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage, which occurs between the ages of 11 and 15, when individuals move beyond concrete experiences and think in more abstract and logical ways.
Piagets formal operational concept that adolescents have the cognitive ability to develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems and can systematically deduce which is the best path to follow in solving the problem.
the heightened self-consciousness of adolescents', which is refelected in adolescents' beliefs that others are as interested in them as they are in themselves, and in adolescents' sense of personal uniqueness and invulnerability.
the aspect of adolescent egocentrism that involves attention-getting behavior motivated by a desire to be noticed, visible, and "onstage".
the part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescent's sense of uniqueness and invincibility.
developmentalists who have elaborated on Piagets theory, believing that children's cognitive development is more specific in many respects than Piaget thought and giving more emphasis to how children use memory, attention, and startegies to process information.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's term for tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be mastered with assistance from adults or more-skilled children.
in cognitive development, Vygotsky used this term to describe the practice of changing the level of support provided over the course of a teaching session, with the more-skilled person adjusting guidance to fit the child's current performance level.
Social Constructivist Approach
an emphasis on the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.
an approach that focuses on the ways children process information about their world- how they manipulate information, monitor it, and create strategies to deal with it.
the mechanism by which information gets into memory.
the ability to process information with little or no effort.
creation of new procedures for processing information
cognition about cognition, or "knowing about knowing".
concentrating and focusing mental resources.
focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant.
concentrating on more than one activity at the same time.
the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time. Sustained attention is also called focused attention or vigilance.
involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
individuals focusing on the same obejct or event; requires the ability to track another's behavior, one person directing another's attention, and reciprocal interaction.
retention of inforamtion over time.
limited-capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for up to 30 seconds, assuming there is no rehearsal of the information. Using rehearsal, individuals can keep the information in short-term memory longer.
a relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory.
a mental "workbench" where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisions, solving problems, and comprehanding written and spoken language.
states that when people reconstruct information, they fit it into information that already exists in their minds.
mental frameworks that organize concepts and information.
Fuzzy Trace Theory
states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: 1) verbatim memory trace; and 2) fuzzy trace or gist. according to this theory, older children's better memory is attributed to the fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information.
memory without conscious recollection; memory of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically.
conscious memory of facts and experiences.
thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating the evidence.
being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life's everyday activities and tasks.
knowledge about memory.
Theory of Mind
awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
the ability to solve problems and to adapt and learn from experiences.
Mental Age (MA)
an individual's level of mental development relative to others.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
an individual's mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100; devised in 1912 by William Stern.
a symmetrical distribution with a majority of the cases falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg's theory that intelligence comes in three forms: analytical, creative, and practical.
the ability to perceive and express emotion accurately and adaptively, to understand emotion and emotional knowledge, to use feelings to facilitate thought, and to manage emotions in oneself and others.
the fraction of the variance in a population that is attributed to genetics.
intelligence tests that aim to avoid cultural bias.
anxiety that one's behavior might confirm a stereotype about one's group.
Developmental Quotient (DQ)
an overall developmental score that combines subscores on motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gessell Assessment of Infants.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
initially created by Nancy Bayley, these scales are widely used in assessing infant development. The current version has five scales: cognitive, language, motor, socioemotional, and adaptive.
Mental Retardation (MR)
a condition of limited mental ability in which the individual: 1) has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test; 2) has difficulty adapting to everyday life; 3) has an onset of these characteristics by age 18.
possession of above-average intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent for something.
the ability to think in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems.
thinking that produces many answers to the same question; characteristic of creativity.
thinking that produces one correct answer; characteristic of the kind of thinking required on conventional intelligence tests.
a technique in which children are encouraged to come up with creative ideas in a group, play off one another's ideas, and say practically whatever comes to mind.
a form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols.
the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules.
the sound system of a language, which includes the sounds used and rules about how they may be combined.
the rule system that governs how words are formed in a language.
the ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.
the meaning of words and sentences.
the appropriate use of language in different contexts.
the use of short, precise words without grammatical markers such as articles, auxiliary verbs, and other connectives.
a process that helps to explain how young children learn the connection between a word and its referent so quickly.
knowledge about language.
an approach that emphasizes that reading instruction should focus on phonics and its basic rules for tanslating written symbols into sounds.
an approach that stresses that reading instructions should parallel children's natural language learning. Reading materials should be whole and meaningful.
an implied comparison between two unlike things.
the use of irony, derision, or wit to expose folly or wickedness.
a variety of language that is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation.
an area of the brain's left frontal lobe that is involved in speech production and grammatical processing.
an area of the brain's left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehension.
a disorder resulting from brain damage to Broca/Wernicke's Areas that involves a loss or impairment of the ability to use or comprehend words.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Chomsky's term that describes a biological endowement that enables the child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics.
language spoken in a higher pitch than normal, with simple words and sentences.
rephrasing a statement that a child has said, perhaps turning it into a question, or restating a child's immature utterance in the form of a fully grammatical utterance.
restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said.
identifying the names of objects.
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