Derived from opium and lead to a reduction in pain Highly addictive, can overdose, high dependency
Slows the operation of CNS and prescribed to relieve anxiety and insomnia Cause intoxication, slow reflexes, impaired judgement, and addiction
Ex: alcohol, barbiturates, and tranquilizers
Arouses and excites the CNS, increase stamina and alterness at lo doses Produce anxiety, irritability, tolerance, and sensitization
Ex: nicotine, caffeine, cocaine
Alters consciousness by inducing hallucinations and perception of environments (mimic psychosis) Increase anxiety, paranoia, and depression
Ex: LSD and marijuana
Thinking, gaining knowledge and dealing with knowledge
We are not always aware of our cognitive processes, or are able to describe them
familiar or typical examples of concepts
Naturally connect certain concepts with others or create hierarchies in our minds
thinking of one concept primes other concepts linked to it
Cross-Cultural Studies of Concepts
Words do not translate exactly, but we do not think very differently (in general)
Tendency to respond to some stimuli more than others at any given time, or to remember some more than others.
We can choose where to direct our attention; "spying" through peripheral vision
Causes which grab our attention
Movement Color Unusual or different
Noticing objects that stand out immediately. No need to shift or direct our attention
Require searching through items in a series, shifting attention from one area to another
Failure to detect changes in parts of a scene
Failing to detect changes in parts of sound
During a brief time after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else
How does understanding problem-solving, expertise, and error help us understand?
They help us to understand thought processes
It is an example of outstanding cognition. Can only come through 10 years of concentrated practice (Think about how long it takes to get a Ph.D. in a particular area of study)
Phases of Problem-Solving
1. Understanding the problem: simplify the problem or issue 2. Generate hypothesis: use algorithms or heuristics 3. Testing the hypotheses 4. Check the result: is your idea realistic?
Strategies for simplifying a problem or guiding an investigation
Types of Heuristics:
Representativeness Base-Rate Information Availability
Types of Errors in Cognition
Overconfidence: polarized thinking leads to overconfidence Unlikely outcomes: playing the lottery Confirmation bias: "Girls cannot do math" Framing questions: sunk cost effect
Language has productivity
enables us to express new ideas
A system for converting language's deep structure into a surface structure (sentence)
Noam Chomsky's Language Acquisition
Humans learn language so easily that they must begin with a language framework
Built-in Mechanisms in humans for acquiring language
Evidence for: some grammar rules seem "natural"
More reasonable: we are predisposed to learn some language relationships more easily than others
How do babies learn language?
Adults talk to infants in "parantese". They learn language by the regularities and patterns in what they hear. Infants younger than 12 months can detect the regularities of language they hear
Broca's Area (Frontal cortex) and aphasia
Inarticulate speech and difficulties using and understanding grammar
Wernicke's Area (temporal cortex) and aphasia
Difficulty recalling the names of objects and impaired comprehension of language; language is nonsensical even if it follows grammatical rules
Stages of Language Development
1. 3 months: random vocalizations 2. 6 months: distinct babbling 3. 1 year: babbling that resembles typical language; language comprehension is better 4. 18 months: can say approx. 50 wods; few or no phrases 5. 2 years: 2-words phrases 6. 2.5 years: longer phrases and short sentences; continually understanding more 7. 3 years: vocabulary includes about 1000 words; longer sentences with fewer errors 8. 4 years: close to the level of adult speech
First sound an infant makes?
"Muh" ==> mother
Why do schools start to teach a second language to children at young ages?
It is easier to learn language when you are younger than vice versa
learning two languages equally well
Disadvantages of bilingualism
Takes longer to master 2 languages Confusing words from the 2 languages
Understanding sentences depends on...
Understanding of sentences depends on our knowledge of the world as well as the syntax of sentences
We recognize letters more accurately when part of a whole word
A unit of sound (phonics)
Units of meaning
Eye movements while reading
Fast Jerky (fixations and saccades) We are blind during saccades Fixation lengths vary on complexity
An internal capacity or ability that accounts for individual differences in mental test performance AND enables us to adapt to our changing environments
Intelligence is specific to what?
An individual's environment and abilities; different species face different survival problems => we all differ in our ability to adapt
the use of psychological tests to measure the mind and mental processes; measure specific mental skills
Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) believed what?
Believed individual differed in ability had bases in heredity. Measured through tests of sensory discrimination and reaction time.
Charles Spearman (1863-1945) developed what?
Statistical procedure that groups together related items on tests by analyzing correlations among test scores.
Factor g, general intelligence Factor s,important to take specific abilities into account (specific intelligence)
Hierarchical Models show what?
Compromise of G and S
Raymond Cattell and John Horn developed what?
Fluid Intelligence and Hermoine Granger
Natural ability to solve problems, reason, and remember. Uninfuluenced by experience and is determined through genetic factors
Ex: Hermoine is extremely book-smart
Crystalllized Intelligence and Harry Potter
Knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience. Schooling/academic knowledge gained and cultural influences
Ex: Harry dueling Voldemort multiple times and learning the spells because he needed to do so in order to win
How do you combine Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence? and Dumbledore
The combination helps explain how mental abilities change with age and across cultures.
Dumbledore was considered one of the oldest and wisest wizards based on his experiences and knowledge of magic
People possess a set of separate and independent "intelligences"; Individuals sometimes show specialized skills that are not representative of a general ability
Who Developed Multiple Intelligence Theory?
8 Distinct Kinds of Intelligence in Multiple Intelligence Theory
Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Logical-Mathematical Linguistic Spatial Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist
Proposes 3 types of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical
Processing information; conventional tests
Ability to cope with new tasks
How well one fits into their environment; "street smarts"
Measuring Individual Differences
Your performance compared to others
Measure current level of knowledge/competence
Ex: AP Exams
Measure ability to learn or acquire knowledge in a particular subject (ACT or SAT exams)
What Makes a Good Test? 3 parts.
Reliability Validity Standardization
Measure of the consistency of test results
Assessment of how well a test measure what it is supposed to measure
Keeping testing, scoring, and interpretation procedures consistent across all administrations
Intelligence Quotient: mental age divided by chronological age x a hundred
What is the historical context of IQ?
To develop a test that would accurately measure individual differences in future academic performance
The chronological age that best fits a child's level of performance on a test of mental ability.
How to calculate Mental Age?
Calculated by comparing a test score with average scores of different age groups
If you are above 100, what are you?
Above average mental age
If you are below 100, what are you?
Below average mental age
Derived from determining where one's performance sits in an age-based distribution of test scores
Determination of Mental Retardation
Mental age of 70 or below and diagnosed before age 18
Levels of Mental Retardation
Mild Moderate Severe Profound
Mental age of 50-70: compared to a 6th grade level, can be self-supporting
Mental age of 35-50: unlikely to surpass 2nd grade level, can be semi-independent
Mental age of 20-35: may learn to perform tasks in high structured environments
Mental age of less than 20: little or no speech is possible, constant care and supervision
Mental age at or above 130. Generally more successful both academically and socially and tend to come from economically privileged households
Exhibit tremendous "gifts" in a particular domain. More likely to be male, associated with autism