Chem 104 Condensation 1 Organic molecules are based on carbon The simplest are hydrocarbons, made of hydrogen and carbon, the simplest of which is methane (CH4) Isomers- compounds with identical formulas but different structures Structural Isomer-compounds with the same formula but different atoms are linked together in different ways Stereoisomers Geometric isomers- isomers generated from the rotation along a double bond /\/\=/\--cis (same) /\/\\/\/\--trans (opposite) Cis-2-butene Trans-2-butene Optical Isomers- non-superimposable mirror images -Chiral-usually attached to four different groups of atoms (enantiomers) Carbon bonds are relatively strong, and do not break under UV light, or moderate heat Alkanes- have only single bonds between carbons (CnH2n+2) -Alkanes are often called saturated compounds -structural isomers exist above propane Naming Alkanes ends in -ane Base corresponds to longest chain of carbon atoms substituent groups are named in alphabetical order Alkanes are: gases (methane-butane), liquids (+), colorless, insoluble, nonpolar, unreactive (halogenation), Cycloalkanes -alkanes formed with carbon rings -often are strained hydrocarbons, that have an unfavorable geometry and will break apart and form different bonds Alkenes- have at least one double C=C bond (CnH2n) -isomers begin at propene -generate cis, trans isomers -also can form cycloalkenes Alkynes- C-C triple bonds (CnHn-2) Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes -unsaturated -colorless, gases at low mass, liquids and solids at higher masses -participate in addition reactions Aromatic Compounds -have good smells -benzene is simplest Diagram of Aromatic Names Alcohols -contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group -ROH -The OH group induces slight polarity and makes the molecules slightly soluble -the h-bonding also gives them higher boiling points -as the alkyl group gest bigger, boiling point increases, and solubility decreases Ethers -ROR' -opposites of alcohols, not soluble at all Amines -one or more hydrogen atoms in NH3 are replaced with organic groups -usually have offensive odors -only the smallest amines are water soluble -all amines are bases Compounds with a carbonyl group -C=O Aldehydes (RCHO) -product of the oxidation of primary alcohols -One Carbon attached to two H and an OH -can be oxidized into carboxylic acids -pleasant odors Ketones -oxidation products of secondary alcohols -carbon bonded to two others, H, and =O -pleasant odors Carboxylic Acids -drop the ?e? on the alkane and add ?-oic? -the hydrogen of the OH group is acidic -reduced to aldehydes, then alcohols Esters -formed from alcohols and carboxylic acid -keep the oxygen from the alcohol (OR group) -can be reversed via hydrolysis Amides(RCONR) -acids react with amines, attaching the carboxyl group to the nitrogen atom, and producing water -N atom has trigonal planar geometry, and sp2 hybridization -amides can add hydrogen (becoming NH3) via protanoation, and will have a constituent anion (Cl) Polymers- Addition Polymers are made from the addition of multiple monomers. The monomers for addition polymers normally contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds Condensation Polymers are made from the combination of two different molecules and spit out a smaller molecule, usually water. The monomers for condensation polymers contain one or more functional groups such as carboxylic acid, alcohol, or amine groups. If a monomer only contains one type of functional group, then another type of molecule is required that contains another functional group. Copolymers- formed from the polymerization of two or more different monomers Polyesters- multiple esters linked together Polyamides- multiple amides linked together -6,6 Nylon (6 carbons on each side) -hydrogen bonding makes them extra strong C-C4=gas; C5-C16=liquid, C17-C++=solid review amides review carboxyl rxns
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