Denisha S.

Name all of the geometric shapes that stem from trigonal bipyramidal (in order) and how many terminal atoms it has, and the bond angle

trigonal bipyramidal (5 terminal atoms) <90,120,180>

Seesaw (4 terminal atoms) <90,120,180>

T-Shaped (3 terminal atoms) <90,180>

Linear (2 terminal atoms) <180>

Name all of the geometric shapes that stem from an octahedral (in order) and how many terminal atoms it has, and the bond angle

Octahedral (6 terminal atoms) <90,180)

Square Pyramidal (5 terminal atoms) <90,180>

Square Planar (4 terminal atoms) <90,180>

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Name all of the geometric shapes that stem from trigonal planar (in order) and how many terminal atoms it has, and the bond angle

Trigonal Planar (3 terminal atoms) <120>

Bent (2 terminal atoms <120>

Name all of the geometric shapes that stem from tetrahedral (in order) and how many terminal atoms it has, and the bond angle

Tetrahedral (4 terminal atoms) <109>

Trigonal Pyramidal (3 terminal atoms) <109>

Bent (2 terminal atoms) <109>

Lowest hybridization number and its geometry

sp

(linear)

Highest hybridization number and its geometry

sp3d2

(octahedral)

List all hybridization numbers from least to greatest

sp

sp2

sp3

sp3d

sp3d2

difference between polar and nonpolar

Polar: (unsymmetrical)

Has dipoles

Nonpolar: (symmetrical)

Has no dipoles

important note about lone pairs

They are used to determine polarity and write hybridization numbers

what is (n-1) used for?

to give you the max of (l), which is the sublevels

what are the quantum numbers

1.) Principal energy level (n)

2.) Sublevel (l) {n-1}

3.) Orbitals (ml) {ml -> -1 ......+l}

4.) Electron spins (ms) {__+__ 1/2}

- Left sides are positive spins of each sublevel
- Right sides are negative spins of each sublevel

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What atoms can't have multiple bonds?

Fluorine

Chlorine

Hydrogen

Which atoms make multiple bonds?

{PONCS}

Phosphorus

Oxygen

Nitrogen

Carbon

Sulfur

Distinguish between sigma bonds and pi bonds

Sigma = Single bond

(strong bond)

Actually overlaps p orbitals (horizontal)

Pi = Double bond

(weak bond)

Shares electrons by vertical orbitals

What orbitals can a sigma bond have

S orbital

P orbital

what orbitals can a pi bond have?

P orbitals

Atomic Radius Trend

(-) ! < -----------------

! (+) (-)

!

!

(+) v

Electronegativity Trend

(+) ^ ------------------- >

i (-) (+)

i

(-) i

Ionization Trend

(+) ^ ------------------- >

i (-) (+)

i

(-) i

S Orbital Shape

Spherical

P Orbital Shape

(figure 8 on x, y, z axis)

Constant "C" value

C = 2.998 x 10^8 m/s

Value of "RH" constant

RH= 2.180 x 10^18 J

Value of "h" constant

h= 6.626 x 10^ -34 m^2kg/s

Excited state

electron moves from a lower orbital to a higher one

ground state

when the electrons are most stable

paramagnetic

atoms is unstable and valences are NOT full

diamagnetic

atom is most stable and all valences are full

Nonideal bond angle of bent molecule

104 degrees

what is heat formation of an element in their "MOST STABLE STATE" under standard conditions

0

how to convert from Celsius to kelvin

add 273 to C

Convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit

C x (9/5) + 32 = F

what is the specific heat of water

4.18 j/g c

What does evolved refer to?

exothermic (release)

what is the magnitude of q and delta H for EXOTHERMIC reactions

-q

- delta H

what is the magnitude of q and delta H for ENDOTHERMIC reactions

+q

+ delta H

What is Hess's Law?

what is are gas equations?

pv = nrt

pv = __grt__

MM

value of "r" constant

r = 0.0821

Ionization Energy

the measure of how difficult it is to remove an electron from a gaseous atom

how many meters are in 1 nm

1.0 x 10^ -9 m = 1 nm

how many joules are in 1 kj

1,000 J = 1 kj

what atoms has the greatest Electronegativity

Fluorine (F)

what element has the largest atomic radius

Cesium (Cs)

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