When one holds onto the electrons more than the other
a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.
a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound.
if the molecule only has 2
if the molecule has more than 2
the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy (the average distance between two bonded atoms)
the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms.
When two atoms form a covalent bond, what do their shared electrons do?
form overlapping orbitals
Why are noble gas atoms unreactive?
their electron configurations are especially stable
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest energy level.
What are the exceptions to the octet rule?
Hydrogen forms bonds in which it is surrounded by only two electrons. Boron has just three valence electrons, so it tends to form bonds in which it is surrounded by six electrons Main Group elements in periods 3 and up form bonds with expanded valence
an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicate by dots placed around hte element's symbol.
involving more than 8 electrons.
Unshared Pair/Lone Pair
a pair of electrons that are not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom.
indicates the kind, number, and arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule.
a covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms.
a covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms.
double and triple bonds are referred to as multiple bonds.
composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal.
the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established.
in an ionic crystal, ions minimize their potential energy by combining in an orderly arrangement.
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms.
Characteristics of metallic bonding gives metals their characteristic properties...