children were taught to help cope with anger. p.4 Raising Children
One of the earliest examples of research conducted for the benefit of children was:
the Earl of Shaftesbury's effort to reform child labor practices. p.10 Social Reform Movements
In a study of adopted children, the finding that the only children who had a considerable likelihood of becoming schizophrenic were those who had a schizophrenic biological parent and who were also adopted into a troubled home is evidence of:
he interaction of nature and nurture. p.12 Nature and Nurture: How to Nature and Nurture Together Shape Development?
Which of the following statements is the best example of children's active contribution to their own development?
Manny's quiet nature influences him to seek out other quiet children, with whom he plays quiet games and stays away from the more rambunctious children in his class. p.13 The Active Child
Which of the following activities is NOT a core component of effortful attention?
exerting effort on tasks p.18 Mechanisms of Developmental Change: How Does Change Occur?
The study in which 6-year-old children were presented with a 5-day training program designed to improve effortful attention demonstrated that learning:
can improve both intelligence test scores and brain processes. p.18 Mechanisms of Developmental Change: How Does Change Occur?
Which of the following factors is the greatest obstacle to poor children's chances of successful development?
accumulation of various disadvantages p.21 The Sociocultural Context: How Does the Sociocultural Context Influence Development?
Which of the following items is NOT one of the four factors Scarr identified as involved in the differences among siblings?
sociocultural context p.22 Individual Differences
Which of the basic steps of the scientific method is unique to the method?
Develop a method to test hypothesis. p.25 The Scientific Method
The validity of a test refers to:
the degree to which it measures what it is intended to measure. p.26 The Scientific Method
Which of the following statements does NOT express a benefit of structured observation?
Children feel comfortable in their own environment. p.29 Contexts for Gathering Data about Children
Variables X and Y are negatively correlated, indicating that as the level of ________, the level of ________.
X increases; Y decreases & Y increases; X decreases
p.30-31 Correlation and Causation
Researchers would be LEAST likely to examine the effect of ________ with experimental design.
of poverty on children's beliefs about intelligence p.32 Correlation and Causation
A researcher would be MOST likely to use a microgenetic design in examining:
how change in a particular skill occurs. p.35-36 Designs for Examining Development
Siegler and Jenkins' examination of the development of the counting-on strategy is an example of ________ design.
microgenetic p.36 Designs for Examining Development
Germ cells contain ______ chromosomes.
23 p.44 Conception
Research demonstrating that it is the scent of amniotic fluid that guides a newborn rat to its mother's nipple is evidence of:
fetal learning. p.48 A Closer Look 2.3: Phylogenetic Continuity
The level of ________ determines whether a fetus develops female or male sex organs.
testosterone produced by the fetus p.49 Developmental Processes
Which of the following adjectives describes a characteristic of the placenta?
semipermeable p.50 Early Development
In general, prenatal development occurs in such a manner that areas close to the ______ develop earlier than areas farther away from it.
head p.50 An Illustrated Summary of Prenatal Development
Gina and Margaret are pregnant at the same time. Gina's fetus is quite active throughout the day, whereas Margaret's fetus is rather inactive. Which of the following explanations would be the best guess as to how active their infants will be?
Gina's infant is likely to be more active than Margaret's infant. p.54 Fetal Behavior
Which of the following activities is NOT generally performed by fetuses?
scratching itches p.54 Fetal Behavior
At the end of her pregnancy, Joshua's mother's diet included a lot of ginger. Based on the research cited in the text, which of the following statements is MOST likely to be true?
Newborn Joshua is likely to remember the smell and taste of ginger well into his first year. p.58 Fetal Learning
In the United States, which of the following substances is the MOST common cause of injury to the fetal brain?
alcohol p.62 Hazards to Prenatal Development
Which of the following patterns of maternal alcohol consumption is considered acceptable in terms of avoiding harmful effects?
None of the answers is correct; there is no known safe level of alcohol consumption for a pregnant woman. p.64 Hazards to Prenatal Development
In the study by Boismeyer, compared to other newborns, those who were provided with extra visual stimulation while awake:
spent less of their subsequent sleep time in non-REM sleep. p.71 State of Arousal
Which of the following statements about the age at which U.S. infants typically sleep through the night is true?
U.S. infants typically sleep through the night at approximately 4 months, but the age varies across cultures. p.72 State of Arousal
Which of the following statements about infant mortality in the United States is true?
Over the past several decades, the U.S. infant-mortality ranking has gotten worse in comparison to other countries. p.74 State of Arousal
Preterm infants whose mothers ________ showed enhanced performance on a developmental test.
all of the above p.77 Box 2.5: Parenting a Low-Birth-Weight Baby
________ stimulation is widely used to intervene with low-birth-weight infants.
Tactile p.77 Negative Outcomes at Birth
Which of the following statements about genetics is true?
Genes are sections of chromosomes. p.87 Genetic and Environmental Forces
If an individual is heterozygous for a trait, he has inherited:
two different alleles for that trait. p.89 Genetic and Environmental Forces
Which of the following properties is a mechanism for genetic inheritance of disease?
chromosomal anomalies. p.93 Box 3.1: Genetic Transmission of Diseases and Disorders
Lenny is a very active toddler who began to crawl, pull himself up to a standing position, walk, climb, and run at a very early age. Which of the following statements is NOT an example of a way in which Lenny's phenotype may affect his environment?
Lenny's father is also quite active, and he frequently brings Lenny to the playground, athletic games, and amusement parks. p.95 Genetic and Environmental Forces
If the correlation between identical twins on Trait R is higher than the correlation between fraternal twins on Trait R, behavior geneticists conclude that:
genetic factors are important in the development of Trait R. p.96-97 Behavior Genetics
Which of the following statements provides the best evidence for the argument that intelligence has a genetic influence?
Identical twins are more similar in intelligence than fraternal twins. p.97 Behavior Genetics
Imagine that researchers estimated the heritability score for Trait W to be 45%. Which of the following statements is a correct interpretation of this estimate?
The amount of variation in Trait W in an entire population is 45% due to genetic factors. p.98-99 Behavior Genetics
Interneurons serve as the intermediaries between:
sensory and motor neurons. p.102 Structures of the Brain
During synaptogenesis, each neuron forms synapses with approximately how many other neurons?
thousands p.108 Developmental Processes
Earlier research on the timing of synapse production and elimination failed to show the changes at adolescence because:
the same individuals were not followed over time. p.109-110 Developmental Processes
Imagine an infant who is given special glasses to wear from birth. The glasses do not allow the infant to see any color; rather, the world appears to the infant in shades of gray. The child's brain development would probably be affected through ________ processes.
experience-expectant p.111 The Importance of Experience
Times when the human brain is in particular need of external experience to develop normally are referred to as:
sensitive periods. p.112 The Importance of Experience
Kim is a 4-year-old who has just been in an accident and has sustained damage to an area of the brain that is specialized for a particular skill.
Her doctor tells her parents that she is lucky to be so young; she should recover her ability in this domain. Her doctor is counting on Kim's brain to: become rewired as a different area takes over for the damaged area.
Which of the following items is NOT a source of variability in physical development among individuals?
body image p.116-117 Growth and Maturation
Six-month-old Liliana has been exclusively breast-fed since birth and thus has never drunk milk from a bottle. The first time Liliana is offered a bottle, she tries to suck on it the way she is used to sucking.
However, her sucking behavior is not successful with the bottle. She thus has to adapt her sucking in order to get sufficient milk from the bottle. Liliana's new understanding of how to suck on the bottle is an indication that she has engaged in the process of: accommodation.
The experiment in which Piaget asks what a doll would see if it were sitting in a chair across the table from the child was designed to examine:
egocentrism. p.136 The Preoperational Stage
Children make the transition from Piaget's preoperational to concrete operational stage at around _____ years old.
7 p.139 The Concrete Operations Stage
Children first come to reason logically about features of the world in Piaget's ________ stage.
concrete operations p.139 The Concrete Operations Stage
Children first come to think abstractly and reason hypothetically in Piaget's ________ stage.
formal operations p.139 The Formal Operations Stage
Task analysis refers to:
identification of an individual's goals, information in the environment, and processing strategies. p.144 Information-Processing Theories
Which of the following views best represents information-processing theories?
child as computational system p.145 View of Children’s Nature
Several times during Carmen's first week of school, she mistakenly opened the closet door when she meant to open the door to the bathroom. Which of the following explanations for Carmen's mistake is likely the best?
Carmen has not encoded the location of the bathroom door. p.148 Central Development Issues
The father of 4-year-old Annabelle and 9-year-old Shana tells his daughters that they need to buy 10 items at the supermarket, including 5 items to make cake (eggs, flour, butter, sugar, and chocolate) and 5 items for lunch (milk, bread, peanut butter, jelly, and apples).
He asks Annabelle to help him remember the cake ingredients, and he asks Shana to help him remember the lunch items. Which of the following occurrences is MOST likely to happen? Annabelle will pay equal attention to all 10 items, and Shana will repeat her own five items over and over until they select the items at the store.
An 11-month-old infant would be MOST likely to use analogical reasoning when new and old problems are the same in terms of:
color, shape, and location. p.153 Central Development Issues
The mutual understanding that people share during communication is referred to as:
intersubjectivity. p.161 Central Development Issues
According to Vygotsky, the level at which parents can optimally support children's thinking is:
a level that is slightly higher than the level at which children can perform without assistance. p.163 Central Development Issues
Knowledge of the events of one's life is referred to as:
autobiographical memory. p.163 Central Development Issues
Ann Brown's “community of learners” program is supported by:
sociocultural theories. p.164 Box 4.4: Educational Applications of Sociocultural Theories
Smith, Thelen, and their colleagues concluded that the A-not-B task, which is generally viewed as a measure of conceptual understanding, is influenced by motor activities and attention. This conclusion was reached from within the ________ approach.
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