Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
1. How many tones are there in modern standard Chinese?
3. In Chinese, which comes first, the given name (John, Sally, etc.) or the surname (Smith, Johnson, etc.)?
4. In what year was China first made into a unified, imperial, bureaucratic state?
5. What Chinese ruler is famous for having burned books and buried scholars subsequent to the unification referred to above?
6. Why does Chinese make relatively little use of words borrowed from other languages?
7. Name an Asian language other than Chinese that is that is also tonal, and in which single syllables usually carry meaning (as in Chinese).
8. What is the name of the Chinese transliteration system used in this course?
9. Write in the approximate sound values of the following Chinese initial consonants:
c q z zh x
10. What does the four-word idiom “three-people-create-tiger” mean?
11. In the pinyin system, what sound does the letter “i” represent in the syllable zhi?
12. What two steps must you follow to find a character you do not know how to pronounce in a Chinese dictionary?
13. Which of the following English words rhymes best with the Chinese syllable jiu?1) clue 2) see 3) the 4) slow
14. Which of the following English words rhymes best with the Chinese syllable hui?
1) say 2) see 4) toy 4) tie
15. Which of the following English words rhymes best with the Chinese syllable zheng?
1) sing 2) sang 3) song 4) sung
16. Which of the following Chinese syllables rhymes best with the English word “hung?”
1) zhong 2) jing 3) zheng 4 zhang
17. Which of the following Chinese syllables is closest in sound to the the English pronoun “I?”
1) yi 2) ai 3) ei 4) e
18. Which two of the following Chinese syllables rhyme?
1) yu 2) you 3) jiu 4) zu
19. Supply four Chinese syllables, each of which exemplifies a different pronunciation of the letter “i” in the pinyin system.
20. In the pinyin system, how are the sounds “j,” “ch,” and “sh” respectively represented in cases where the tongue is in the retroflex position?
21. In the pinyin system, how are the sounds “j,” “ch,” and “sh” represented in cases where the tongue is in the palatal position?
22. What are some features of Lóngshān culture that do not appear to have existed in the earlier Yǎngshāo culture?
23. In Chinese myth, what two figures are regarded as founders of the institution of matrimony?
24. What mythical ruler is said to have eaten hundreds of herbs in order to discover which were beneficial, and which harmful, to humankind?
25. In what general area of present day China did Chinese civilization initially develop?
26. According to legend, how did Yáo and Shùn handle the problem of succession?
27. In Chinese legend who is said to have repaired the sky with multi-colored stones after a great cataclysm?
28. Which is further north, the Yángzi River or the Yellow River?
29. According to legend, what contribution did Fú Xī make to the art of record-keeping?
30. Léi Zǔ (the consort of the “Yellow Lord”) and the “girl with the horse’s head” are both associated in legend with the origin of what?
31. What dynasty is said to have been founded by Yǔ the Great?
32. What mythical Chinese ruler is especially associated with the virtue of filial piety?
33. What is the earliest Chinese dynasty authenticated beyond a doubt by archeology?
34. In what millennium BCE did the above dynasty (Shang) exist?
35. What does the term zhōng xīng refer to?
36. What legendary Chinese ruler is said to have called a great meeting of tributary chiefs at Mt. Kuàiji or “Accounting Mountain” in (modern) Zhèjiāng Province?
37. What was the name of the last capital city of the Shāng dynasty?
38. The oldest inscribed oracle bones thus far discovered date from the reign of what ruler?
39. Who was Fù Hǎo and what are our two principal sources of information about her?
40. What Zhōu ruler undertook the final conquest of Shāng?
41. What was the name of the military strategist whose counsel enabled the Zhōu rulers to overthrow the Shāng? (any of his several names will do)
42. What was the above figure doing when he was first discovered by a Zhōu Wén-wáng?
43. What dynasty is said to have almost come to an end when the entire ruling family was slaughtered except for the pregnant queen, who fled back to her own tribe?
44. Who were Mèi Xǐ, Dá Jǐ, and Bāo Sì?
45. According to tradition, what dynastic founder showed his virtue by keeping his hunting nets open on three sides, so that only willing victims would be caught?
46. What does the term tiān mìng refer to?
47. In what Chinese text does the concept of tiān mìng first appear?
48. What Chinese classic is said to have been composed in part by the founder of the Zhōu dynasty during a period of imprisonment?
49. What dynasty is said to have come to an end soon after the king started setting fire to signal pyres as a means of amusing his favorite concubine?
50. Name a language other than Chinese that is thought to belong to the same language family as Chinese (do not name a dialect of Chinese).
51. According to tradition, how did King Wǔ Dīng of the Shāng dynasty identify, locate, and recruit his wise advisor Fù Yuè?
52. In what way is Shén Nóng (“Spirit Farmer”) associated with the origins of traditional Chinese medicine?
53. What does the term sān dài refer to?
54. What legendary figure is held up as an example of public spirit because he passed by his home three times without going in rather than be distracted from his work on flood control?
55. Upon what evidence did Yáo decide that Shùn was the worthiest person in the realm to succeed him?
56. What pair of mythical figures were depicted in early times as having human bodies ending in serpents’ tails that were intertwined with each other?
57. What figure in historical myth is credited with the invention of the Chinese writing system, and how is he supposed to have gotten the idea of using linear patterns to represent words?
58. To what era is the following little song attributed and what is its significance: “The sun rises and I work, / The sun sets and I rest. / I drill wells and drink, / I plough the earth and eat. / What has the might of the king to do with me?”
59. According to legend, what foolish action on the part of King Yōu brought about the fall of the Western Zhōu dynasty?
60. Why was the Shāng dynasty sometimes referred to as the Yīn dynasty?
61. According to legend, when Gǔgōng Dǎnfù (the grandfather of Zhōu Wén-wáng) was the leader of the Zhōu people, barbarians came and demanded his wealth and possessions and his land and his people. How did Gǔgong Dǎnfù respond to these challenges and what was the result?
62. What Chinese classic is said to have been composed in layers by four successive culture heroes: Fú Xī, Zhōu Wén-wáng, Zhōu-gōng, and Kǒngzi?
63. The ordinary Chinese word for China nowadays is Zhōngguó. What are the literal meanings of those two syllables?
64. What did the word Zhōngguó mean in pre-imperial times (Spring and Autumn and Warring States)?
65. In what Chinese classic are the oldest existing examples of Chinese poetry collected?
66. What Chinese classic consists entirely of dry, factual entries such as the following: “In the ninth month, his lordship and an officer of Sòng made a covenant in Sù.”
67. In what period of history do traditional Chinese dates start to be reliable?
68. According to legend, what were some of the circumstances surrounding the birth of Bāo Sì?
69. What are the four main categories into which the poems of the Shījīng are divided?
70. What is the earliest surviving Chinese text that consists throughout of prose narrative?
71. According to tradition, what dynasty suffered a forty-year interruption a few reigns after its inception due to a king’s fondness for hunting?
72. Which of the Spring and Autumn period states was originally the fief awarded to Jiāng Tàigōng and his descendants by the founders of the Zhōu dynasty?
73. Who is supposed to have said, “As from the stump of a felled tree there are sprouts and shoots, Heaven will perpetuate its decree in our favor in this new city,” and what was the occasion?
74. Briefly, what happened during the gònghé (“joint cooperation”) regency period toward the end of the Western Zhōu?
75. Put the following personages in chronological order: Guǎn Zhòng, Yǔ the Great, Nǚ-guā, Jiāng Tàigōng, King Wǔ-dīng, Chéng Tāng, Qín Shǐ Huáng, Yáo, Bāo Sì, Shào Kāng, Shùn.
76. Why was the capital of Zhōu moved from Hào (near present-day Xī’ān) to Luò (present-day Luòyáng) in 771 BCE?
76. Why does Zuǒzhuàn say, “Yǐng Kǎo Shú was wholly filial. His love for his mother passed over to Lord Zhuāng [Zhèng Zhuāng-gōng]?”
77. According to legend, why did the two elder sons of Gǔgōng Dǎnfù decline to accept the throne and go to live among the barbarians of the eastern seacoast?
78. In what era were Chinese politics dominated by “the five hegemons” (be as specific as possible)?
79. What is the relationship between Chūnqiū (The Spring and Autumn Annals) and Zuǒzhuàn (The Narrative of Zuǒ)?
80. What two ancient kings are said in Chinese legend to have been so powerful physically that they could do such things as twist iron bars about like rope and kill wild beasts with their bare hands?
81. Why did Zhèng Zhuāng-gōng keep refusing to launch an attack against his brother Duàn even though it was obvious that Duàn was preparing to overthrow him?
82. What narrative motif occurs in all three of the following: the story of Hòu Jì (the Zhōu founding ancestor); the story of Bāo Sì; and the story of Zhèng Zhuāng-gōng.
83. In the story “Two Brothers Compete to Die” (Course Anthology), what reason, apart from admiration and affection, does Prince Shòu have for attempting to get assassinated in his elder half-brother’s place?
84. Who said, “The ones who bore me were my father and mother, but the one who knows me is Bào Shú Yá?”
85. Give an example of yielding through which, according to legend, the predynastic house of Zhōu acquired virtue and prestige.
86. Place the following eras in chronological order: 1) Shāng, 2) neolithic (Yángshāo and Lóngshān), 3) Spring and Autumn, 4) Zhōu, 5) Warring States, 6) Xià
87. Why did Qǐ (the son of Yǔ the Great) attack and destroy the Hú (a western tribe)?
88. What is the relationship of Hòu Yì and Hán Zhuó the the Xià dynasty?
89. Name three ancient rulers (two Shāng rulers and one Zhōu ruler) who act as sage-seekers in historical legend.
90. The Xià, Shāng, and Zhōu peoples originally inhabited different areas of north China. One group was in the northeast, one was in the north-central area, and one was in the northwest. Which was which?
91. What mythical Chinese ruler is said to have won a great victory over Chì Yóu, a barbarous monster from the south who was the first to use metal weapons?
92. Why did Yáo execute Gǔn, the father of Yǔ the Great?
93. According to legend, how did Yáo’s two daughters become goddesses of the River Xiāng (a Yángzi River tributary) and at the same time contribute to the appearance of the bamboo along its banks?
94. When the clan of Yǒu Shī was attacked by King Jié and the clan of Yǒu Sū was attacked by King Zhòu, what did the clans do to appease the wrath of the attacking kings?
95. Why did Prince Jiū and Prince Xiǎobái choose Lǔ and Jǔ respectively as places of refuge before attempting to claim the throne of Qí?
96. Which of the hegemons was kidnapped from a conference by King Chéng of Chǔ?
97. Who said the following to whom and what were the circumstances: “I have heard that the hearts of sages have seven apertures!”
98. Why did Guǎn Zhòng try to kill Prince Xiǎobái (Qí Huán-gōng)?
99. According to legend, what work was Fù Yuè engaged in when King Wǔ-dīng’s emissaries found that his features matched those that the king had seen in his dream?
100. In “Cáo Mò Grasps a Sword,” how do the other lords respond when they see that Lord Huán of Qí has come to a conference wearing civilian robes and with no military escort?
101. In “Two Brothers Compete to Die,” how, briefly, does Gōngzi Shuò eliminate his brothers and gain the throne of Qí?
102. What larger state lay directly to the north and east of Lǔ?
103. How did Yǐng Kǎo Shú induce Zhèng Zhuāng-gōng to bring up the subject of the oath he had sworn before his mother?
104. What reason did lord Huán of Qí give for reestablishing the state of Wèi after the Dí had killed and devoured its ruler and laid waste to its capital in 659 BCE?
105. In “Cáo Mò Grasps a Sword,” Cáo Mò induces Lord Huán of Qí to return some captured land to Lǔ by brandishing a sword in his face at a conference. As it turns out, Cáo Mò and Lord Huán both gain prestige from this transaction. How?
106. Why did some ancient Chinese suspect that Guǎn Zhòng was something of an unprincipled opportunist?
107. According to the Chronicle excerpt concerning him, why did Sòng Xiāng-gōng think it would be a wise move to use the Viscount of Zēng as a sacrifice to the spirit of the river Suī?
108. According to traditional accounts how did the Book of Songs come into being?
119. Chǔ was: a) south of Zhèng; b) west of Zhèng; c) north of Zhèng; d) east of Zhèng
120. Why did the rulers of Qí all bear the surname Jiāng? Who became the first ruler of that state when he was enfieffed there?
121. What do the two elements in the name Wén Jiāng signify (Wén Jiang was the younger half-sister of Prince Zhū’ér of Qí, also known as Qí Xiāng-gōng)?
122. Who supposedly wrote the Zhōu Lí (Rituals of Zhōu) and the Yí Lǐ (Ceremonies and Rituals)? What Spring and Autumn period state was he the founder of?
123. Which text is more likely to consist primarily of true statements, Zuŏzhuàn (“The Narrative of Zuŏ”) or Chūnqiū (“The Spring and Autumn Annals”)?
124. Who said the following to whom and what were the circumstances: “I shall not look upon you again until I have reached the Yellow Springs!”
125. In the Spring and Autumn era, what large state had rulers who were technically viscounts (zĭ) but referred to themselves as kings (wáng)?
126. According to legend, who originally cast the “Nine Vessels” that, in the Spring and Autumn period, were regarded as the supreme symbol of political legitimacy?
127. According to Zuŏzhuàn, Qí Huán-gōng and Guăn Zhòng entrusted Sòng Xiāng-gōng with a mission that was to be carried out after Huán-gōng’s death. What was the mission?
128. According to legend, what future ruler made a promise to Chŭ Chéng-wáng that if he ever came into military conflict with that ruler’s state, he would have his troops retreat “three stages” before doing battle?
129. According to Zuŏzhuàn, an emissary from Jìn once sang the Shījīng song “Plop Fall the Plums” at a state banquet in Lŭ in order to ask for: a) fresh fruit b) a gift of vermillion bows c) military assistance in a forthcoming campaign d) a marriage partner for a Jìn prince
130. What is the meaning of the character, pronounced “zhī,” written with a representation of an arrow next to a representation of a mouth?
131. What does the term jī dé refer to?
132. Why was Qí Huán-gōng infuriated when he heard Níng Qī singing a song, the lyrics of which said “Never have I seen a Yáo yield to Shùn?”
133. Why did Jìn Wén-gōng wish to bestow a reward on Jiè Zǐ Tuī?
134. According to myth, why was Huáng Dì (the Yellow Lord) able to defeat Chì Yóu, even though the latter had metal weapons and Huáng Di didn’t?
135. In modern Chinese, the term gònghé means “republic.” What did the term refer to originally?
136. Hòu Jì, the mythical ancestor of the Zhōu people, is particularly associated with: a) filial piety b) dream interpretation c) hunting d) millet growing
137. Why did Prince Chóng-ěr of Jìn and his brother Prince Yí-wú both go into exile?
138. What ruler is said to have altered his behavior for the better after listening to a court officer talk about a great bird that for three years had not been heard to sing or seen to fly?
139. According to legend, the actions of the captured Róng princess Lì Jī led to the forced suicide of one prince and the flight of two other princes in the state of a) Zhèng; b) Qín; c) Jìn; d) Lǔ
140. According to legend, who inadvertently revealed that he harbored improper desires when he asked about the size and weight of the Nine Sacred Vessels of Zhōu?
141. What Spring and Autumn era state found itself subject to 1) repeated attacks by Jìn for showing allegiance to Chǔ and 2) repeated attacks by Chǔ for showing allegiance to Jìn?
142. In the Shījīng or Book of Songs, there is a poem (“Kio sings the oriole,” etc.) about three young noblemen who were buried alive in the tomb of one of the five hegemons. Who was the hegemon?
143. According to legend, who, during the early years of the Zhōu dynastic period, put down a rebellion, established the basis of Zhōu ritual, and acted as a regent (temporary ruler) when King Chéng had not yet become an adult?
144. Of the three “dynasties” of the sān dài period, which was particularly characterized by 1) short reign periods and 2) a great many cases of succession from an older brother to a younger brother?
145. According to legend, what remarkable feat was performed by Shào Kāng of the Xià dynasty?
146. What early Chinese text is based on a set of 64 “hexagrams” (stacks of broken and unbroken horizontal lines, six lines to a set)?
147. Who defeated whom in the battle of Chéng-pú?
148. Why did Qí Xiāng-gōng have Péng-shēng executed? (cf. “The Illicit Romance…”)
149. Why did Jìn Wén-gōng order his officers to set fire to the mountain where Jiè Zǐ-tuī was living in retirement with his mother?
150. What can you see if you go to Ban Po, near Xi an?
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!