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chp 11 test.
chp 11 test.
Texas A&M University
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Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology (9th Edition)
a balanced system of organisms and geologic cmponents
energy and matter cycle between ____________
organisms and their enviornment
introduction of aggressive of new organisms reveal___________
nature of ecosystems
kudzu vines are imported from japan to stop _________
plants are what?
autotrophs make what
their own food
aututrophs make their own food how?
by sunlight an C02 in the atmosphere
animals are what
autotraughs use CO2 water, and sunlight to make what
photsynthesis is what type of process
photosynthesis is a process for doing what
storing energy as sugars
is the metabolic process for releasing energy from sugars
extremophiles are what?
microbes tha can thrive in extreme enviornments
pink bacteria exist in_________
anaerobic microbes exist where
beneath ears surface in mibcrobial mats
(during geo microbology) microbes and minerals often do what
this bacterium forms its own magnetitie ( Fe3O4 ) crystals which enable it ____________ in the geomagnetic field
what is the bacterium?
__________can precipitate on this bacteria due to its unique cell- wall structure
____-are sedimentary features ( microbial mats) that are part microbeal part sediments
during growht of stramolities ___________form as micobial mat over grow zone of trapped sediments
well preserved archaen stromatolites fossil is what
evidence for earliest life
1950s expeiirements at univ Chicago to explore life building what?
what the name of this experiment
the pre biotic soup.....chemical reactions
during the prebiotic soup what is not present?
no oxygen is present, just as on early earth
the pre biotic soup produced what?
amino acids, building block of proteins
fossil evidence for life in precambrian rock
rise of oxygen in atmosphere is what?
were first photosynthesizes eukaryotic algae
rise in oxygen led to rapid transition form the previous
every major group of animals originated in what time period
early cambrian ( 500ma)
mass exincion paleonoligcal record shows evidence fo serval___________throughout earth history
likely due to rapid environmental changes ( impacts ) volcanism, climate shifts
extinction likely due to what
rapid environmental changes ( impacts ) volcanism, climate shifts
irridum rich clay layer found world wide at k-t
impact structure at chicxulub, mexico
_________ __abundance also plays a role in determing habitable zone
green house gas
sedimentary structures show evidence for what on mars
presence of what minerals suggest waters were extremely acidic
presence of sulfate minerals
jarosite on earth associated with what
acid rhine drainage
organisms interact with one another and the earth in community groups called what
ecosystems can be what?
small or large
sunlgith may be used as an energy source by what?
plants are eaten by what which are eaten by bears
the plants fish band bbears will die and be decomposed by what
the matter decomposed by microbes wil be returned to the enviornement as what
organisms such as plants are considered what
organisms that get their energy by feeding on autotrouphs
during the metabolic process of photosynthesis, organisms use carbon dioxide and water from the environment and the the energy of sunlight to make what
carbohydrates such as glucose
describe metaboic process of phtosynthesis
radiant energy makes co
humans have damned off parts of the sea to creat pool where seawater can evaporate to pricipiate what
halite for table salt and other uses.
what thrives in hypersaline environments and produce a distinctive pigment that turns the ponds pink
microbe can form layered deposits called what
that top part of the mat is exposed to the what
what is revelead by the green color of the microbial mats
photosynthetic auto trophic microbes
intracelular micrbial production of iron minerals is an exmaple of what
the extra cellular precipitation of calicum carbonate on the surface of microbes is an exmaple of what
in the microbes there are what
enzymes of fesO4
modern stromatolites in shark bay australiea grow where?
in the intertidal zone
what live on teh surface of the stromatolite
is deposited on the microbes
react by growing upward through the sediment, forming a new layer
what type f layerin is seen in cros sections
are sedimentary features that result form the interaction
prebiotic soup explanation:
cloud formationspark disharge
amino acids dissolve in water
well preserved archaean stromatolites are what eviden of life
fossil eveidence for earliest life. 3.4 ga
stromatolites in the warrawona group, western australia have conical shape that suggest what
suggsts tha microbes may have grown toward the sunlight.
by 2.1 ga, microfssil were wellpreserved and abundant in what formation
grypania iw aht type of fossil
eukaryote algae visible with the naked eye
red beds are mostly what
sandstones and shales partly cemented by iron oxide minerals
unusual sedimentary rocks and new, larger organisms mark the rise of what in the atomsphere between 2.7 and 2.1 Ga
rise in oy\\xygen led t what from previous microbial world
rossils that record the cambrian explosion include precambrian calicified
precambrian fosils were first organisms to use what in making shels
hallucigenia and trilobits formed formed what type of shells
\\weak shells made of organic material.
antropoda, molusca, annelida, chordata, echinodermata, and porifera are all apart of what
cambrian radiation( explosion)
microbes still dominate in this perio
a layer of dust composed of both extaterrestrial and materials from local rocks at chicxulb impact site accumulated
all over the world following the impact thatilled the dinosaurs
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