calling attention to the threats posed by threating encoutners with death - accidents, violence, war, terrorism, and engaging in epidemic diesases
1721 Novelist who wrote A journal from the Plague Year as a cautionary tale of the Black Plauge that occurred almost 2 generations earlier.
all life involves risk, but degree of risk we assume is often subject to our own choices about how we life our lives and professions we take
A Japanese legally reconized cause of sudden death from overwork. Charatederized as a buildup of fatique caused by long ours of work that clearly exceed all normal phycholoical limiations.
mountain climbing, parachuting, scuba diving, motorcycle racing and a like. Labeled as "thill seeking"
an event that occurs by change or from known causes can be groaded to include the reconingion of accidents due to carlessness, unawareness, or ignorance. Most people have varing degrees of control over.
some can be ascribed this title but there is no scientifc way to find out why some people appear to be more prone than others for accidents to occur to.
"accidents waiting to happen"
unsafe conditions that are present in an environment due to negligence or ignorance.
14,000 murders occurred in the U.S. 1/2 of victims are under 30 yrs old. 30% are related to arguments over money, property, romantic situations. 15% was committed during the commission of a felony. 2/3 of all murders where gunshot related.
Guns - more than weapons
"when you are carrying a gun, i think other people can tell. some kinda of way a gun makes you light up. If you don't have a gun on you, a dude might mug you down. People don't mug you if you've got a gun on. They can detect something about you...
pg. 458 examples
Children how have witnessed violence because they appear to be physically unharmed but are nevertheless emotionally affected as they hear gunshots and witness shootings.
community based approach to violence prevention in Richmond ca - Larry Cohen & Susan swift: although most concentrated among youth in densely populated, low income, it affects everyone in the united states. pg. 460
Factors Favoring Violence
factors that facilitate murder and other homicidal acts pg. 461
Guidelines for lessening potential for violence
avoid use of loaded verbiage, avoid dehumanizing conditions, promote communication, refrain from using punishment, champion the good guys, foster resources for alternatives, reduce attractiveness of violence in media.
killing is not only accepted, it is heroic, pg. 463
Arnold toynbee - the fundamental postulate on war is that, in war, killing is not murder.
Red Cross - 9/10 dealths in war are civilians, U.N. - during 1990s 2 million children where killed another 6 million wher seriously injured or permanently disabled dur to military conflicts.
Militarism, effects of
is singled out to have a variety of deleterious health effects including proverty, environmental damage, social unrest, political; instability, national debit, and military oppression.
technological advances do not bring us close to our enemy, we do not see their face, they are objectified. The most characteristics feature of the modern war machine.
limits, bow & arrow, ect
avent of atomic bomb there is unlimited damage we could do to one another.
exposure to mass death the self-protective psychological response is to become insensitive and unfeeling. robert liftion and eric olson.
The Conversion of the Warrior
war activates a special set of conventions to make it psychologically possible for individuals to go against the grain of what they have learned about right and wrong - put aside ordinary rules of moral conduct. Toynbee
A much more total 'schizophrenia'
soldier in combat - veteran's example. pg 467
pg 468 - defined as the effort to destory an entire nation or human group, occurred by horrendous results during the 20th cent. exp nazi germany
coping with the aftermath of war
combatants do not necessarily resolve their losses merely by leaving the warzone, or being discharged from military service. pg. 468-470
Making war, making peace
war is defined as a condition of hostile conflict between opposing forces, each of which believes its vital interests are at stake and seeks to impose control on the opposing side through the use of force. us and them. pg 470-472
is like other homicidal acts that occur between strangers, yet many terrorism attacks have more in common with warfare, which aims toward specific targets and goals. pg 472
u.s. state department definition of terrorism
premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combat targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audenice.
doomsday cult that released nerve gas into a tokyo subway in 1995
international agreement. which describes such matters as prisoner of war and of the sick, wounded, and those who are dead in battle.
Encyclopedia of Terrorism
cyndy combs & martian slann highlight key features of present-day terrorism. pg 474
September 11, 2011
terrorists hijacked jetliner and piloted it into the north tower of the world trade center in NYC. then a 2nd plane was crashed into the south tower. the 3rd jetliner was flown into the pentagon and the 4th crashed outside of skanksville penn. 474
Factors increasing imact of terrorism
pg 478 graph
The mind of a Terrorist
much terrorism current is religously affilitated.
AIDS & other emerging disease
another kind of threat is represented by emerging infections diseass like aids.
acquired immune deficiency syndrome, synonymous with death , dread disease, contagious and epidemic, a modern plague. first case reported in 1981. pg 482-486
The threat of emerging diseases
early intervention, a shift to community and public health perspective and 3 the need to address health problems on a global scale.
1918 - pandemic cuaesd that killed as many as 40 million people.
been cricial in treatment of several diseases and infections.
categories of death that affect a large number of people.
pushed into poorer neighborhoods after penicillin was introduced since they could not afford the drug, also has to do with living conditions
subjected to global eradication effort during the 1970s has stated a comeback with as many as 500 million people in 90 countries being affected every year.
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